Category Archives: History

Crime in Chicago (1907)

McClure’s Magazine for April published the result of a careful investigation of the government of Chicago. It now publishes the following article, giving a picture of the conditions of life in Chicago, which have developed as the natural result of such a government. It would be impossible to secure a more authentic description of these conditions. This portrayal of them is not made by one man, or by an investigator who spent merely a few weeks or months in the study of local affairs; it is the work of scores of well-trained observers of life in Chicago, many of whom have spent years in learning the ways of the city, and all of whom have every reason to understate rather than exaggerate the conditions they describe. The indictment of the civilization of that city, given herewith, is not only most serious in itself; it is made doubly impressive by its sources. — Editor.


The epidemic of crime with which the year 1906 opened in Chicago aroused the citizens to a degree of indignation almost unprecedented in its history. During the twenty-four hours ending at ten o’clock on the night of January 6th, tragedy of almost unparalleled enormity held sway in Chicago and its immediate vicinity. The list of “bloody Saturday’s” crimes and casualties comprised two murders, two probable murders, seven suicides – two of those who took their lives were men who brutally slew women they professed to love – five deaths by explosion, and five from other violent causes. As an added gruesome circumstance, a murderer was sentence to be hanged.

“Human life,” said a public prosecutor, “is the cheapest thing in Chicago.”

On January 12th murder – once more with an inoffensive woman as the victim, and this crime more atrocious than any of a startling series that preceded it –again laid hold of Chicago. The latest victim was Mrs. Franklin C. Hollister, thirty years old, church singer and religious worker, who left home in the afternoon to sing at a funeral, and whose body was found the next morning on a
heap of refuse in an enclosure behind a high board-fence at 368 Belden Avenue. A coil of copper tightly encircling the woman’s throat, several bruises upon the face, torn and disheveled garments, and disordered hair told the police at once of a fiendishly brutal murder.

After this crime a general feeling of apprehension passed over the city. All the influence of the local churches was put forth in an effort to rouse citizens to a realization of the criminal menace which overshadowed Chicago. The subject was of all-absorbing interest in the community. The sense of outrage welled up everywhere. In Lake View, on the north side, there was talk by residents of leaving the city, so terrified had they become over the danger to themselves and their families. “It has come to a point,” said a business man, in an informal meeting of citizens to discuss the hold-ups, murders, and crimes in this section, “where no one is safe — especially our wives and children.”

Private Police Force Organized

Indeed, fearing for the safety of their women-folk in another residence quarter of the city, where police protection was inadequate, husbands and fathers in Sheridan Park and Buena Park initiated a cooperative system of defense. A vigilance service was established under the name of the Sheridan Park Protective Patrol, which furnished uniformed guards for unattended women to and from street cars and the elevated stations, and to and from the markets and stores of the neighborhood. In addition, day and night protection of premises was furnished, and instruction in the safe-guarding of property and in dealing with burglars was given for the special benefit of defenseless women.

It was the testimony of hundreds of women living in this part of the city that they had never seen a policeman pass the house. Those living on a business thoroughfare like Halsted Street or Evanston Avenue, or those within view of a patrol box were the only persons accorded this novel sight; the residence streets themselves were practically unprotected.

“It’s got so now, you have to watch for daylight burglars just as much as the night kind,” said Captain Richard Levis, who was in charge of the Sheridan Park Patrol. “They don’t work alone or in pairs, necessarily; they are getting so strong they work in threes and fours and bring a wagon. Sometimes the people in the surrounding flats see four husky men moving out the furniture of the family on the ground floor and stacking it in a wagon in an alley. The next day they are surprised to hear that the ‘movers’ were burglars.”

Captain Levis gave out the following series of “Don’ts for Defenseless Women”:

“Don’t let mail accumulate in vestibule mail boxes. Have the janitor remove it when you are away, or it will serve as a notice to flat workers that you are out and the coast is clear.

“Don’t leave directions to your grocer on the back door. This is another tip to the burglar that you are out.

“Don’t open the door to any one after dark without knowing who it is. Call through the tube or ask behind the locked door.

“Don’t trust a stranger because he is well dressed. The immaculate thief is dangerous; the ragged one is generally harmless.

“Don’t trust the locks. Most apartment locks are toys; a burglar can ‘jimmy’ them in half a minute without noise. Get special bolts.

“Don’t leave the house without making sure all the windows are fastened. Leave all curtains up with possible exception of bedroom. This often fools a burglar.

“Don’t be impolite to a burglar if you find one in the house. Invite him to take it all, and the first chance you get, run to a neighbor and call the police.

“Don’t scream in the presence of a burglar or hold-up man. If he is an amateur, he may lose his presence of mind and hurt you.

Don’t walk close to a building after dark; give an alley a good margin.”

Women in Danger on the Streets

The chief alarm was over the great number of attacks on women. It has ever been our proudest boast as a people that in this country woman is respected and protected as she is in no other. That boast was becoming an empty one in Chicago. Women had not only been annoyed and insulted in great numbers on the streets, within a very short time, but many of them had been robbed, and not a few had been murdered. In the year before the Hollister tragedy there were seventeen murders of women in Chicago, which attracted the attention of the city.

The danger of attack and insult from rough characters, which an unprotected woman runs in venturing upon the streets of Chicago after nightfall, is great. From an investigation made by the Tribune at this time, it appeared that scores of these outrages upon unattended women had taken place recently in certain quarters of the city. The public did not hear of them because the
police effectually suppressed the news of them. Furthermore, it appeared that reports of attacks on women were dismissed practically without investigation or attempts to bring the malefactors to justice. In the case of Mrs. Bertha Tyorka, who died January 15th as the result of a brutal assault, although all the details of the attack were reported two hours after its occurrence, no
action was taken by the police until two hours after her death two days later. Efforts were then made to keep the real cause of her death a secret, and the report of “sudden death” was sent to the Health Department.

Plague Spots and Nurseries of Crime

It is not without reason that Chicago has gained the unwelcome reputation of being a paradise for criminals. The influx of outside crooks with desperate records is steady, and about equal to the exodus of those who have turned a trick and slipped out, to remain under cover in some other city until the noise over their crime has subsided.

In addition to this, the facilities for breeding the local criminal in Chicago are extraordinary. For example, in the territory bounded on the east by the Chicago River, on the west by Wood Street, on the north by Harrison, and on the south by 16th Street, murderers, robbers, and thieves of the worst kind are born, reared, and grown to maturity in numbers which far exceed the record of any similar district anywhere on the face of the globe. Murders by the score, shooting and stabbing affrays by the hundred, assaults, burglaries, and robberies by the thousand, – such is the crime record of each year for this festering place of evil which lies a scant mile from the heart of Chicago. It is here that the locally notorious Mortell McGraw faction won the record for killing officers in fight after fight; and here that the McCalls lived, who defied the law, until five years ago. When it is told that children six years old are often arrested for participating in burglaries, it will readily be
seen that no great time elapses between the exit from the cradle to the entrance to the felon’s cell.

Another plague-spot is the 38th police precinct, which is bounded by Division Street and the Lake on the east. In the first fifty-one days of 1906, 872 arrests were made there, and ten per cent of this total were of serious offenders, charged with crimes exceeding misdemeanors. In this precinct there were then 386 saloons. With an estimated population of 31,164 in the precinct, the saloons reached one for every eighty residents, and this included women and children. The most dangerous hold-up point in Chicago is in this section, the Clark Street bridge over the Chicago & Northwestern Railroad yards. In one instance of a hold-up in this vicinity, one of the two stick-up men remarked, as they turned to leave their victim, “He’s trying to remember us; let’s give
him the guns.” They gave him the guns; and he only escaped with his life by simulating a death-agony.

Vice and depravity are openly traded in as a commodity in Chicago, and the streets of a district traversed daily by at least one-third of the city’s population are its marketplace. The district is bounded by Sangamon, Halsted, Lake, and Monroe Streets and is known as the West Side levee. This public emporium of immorality and degradation exists by virtue of a regularly
organized “protective association,” whose members laugh at law, successfully defy those who have tried to cope with them, and, through some mysterious influence, are enabled to continue their traffic with a license and abandon that makes of the West Side levee as an open brothel.

In the section known as “Little Hell,” a network of dives, grimy hotels, and concert halls, lying between LaSalle Avenue, and the river on the north side, is another center of evil. Here officers supposed to patrol beats are found drinking openly with white-aproned bartenders after closing hours. On the south side orgies go on until four and five o’clock in the morning, and policemen are seen in the saloons. Police Chief Collins admits that he is unable to obtain from his subordinates concerning the extent to which the saloon-closing ordinance is violated.

In various sections of the city “rowdy gangs” of boys and young men collect in crowds on corners to scuffle and fight among themselves and insult and annoy others. They range from little groups of boys belonging to respectable families, who gather on the sidewalks and make impudent remarks to, and throw dirt upon, passers-by, to crews of youth of low bringing-up, whom vicious
dives, debased associates, and depraved and rowdy habits have fitted for the most odious and desperate crimes.

Talk of Vigilantes and Lynchings

The movement to change existing conditions centered, during the late winter, upon an effort to increase the size of the police force. “We need a thousand more men,” said Chief Collins, “to protect the life and property of citizens adequately.” This was generally recognized to be true. Even in the most populous and frequented districts, a policeman was a rare sight. Nobody had a sense of security in the street, either in the business district or the residence quarters.

“The way things are going now” – said Alderman Kohout, who championed the cause of a larger force, to the city council, “how many more murders like that of Mrs. Hollister are you going to have? I tell you this is an emergency – more of an emergency than that of last summer, when we added to the police force during the teamsters’ strike. Is not the virtue and the honor of your mother or sister more important than escorting a lumber wagon through the streets of Chicago?”

In the meanwhile crime continued. On the night of February 27th five Chicago women were set upon and beaten by highwaymen, and some of them robbed. On the same day the Grand Jury returned indictments against four persons for murder and against seventy-one for assaults to kill or to do bodily injury, for burglary, and for robbery. The men who were caught by the police and indicted for robbery and burglary were outnumbered by the men who had committed these offenses and had not been caught by the police. The Grand Jury believed the condition called for searching inquiry.

The people, goaded to desperation by the brutal attacks of thugs on weak women, talked of organizing for their own protection. The police did not catch or scare the criminals; they neither prevented crime nor caught the criminals to punish them. The people saw no hope in them and turned to the thought of vigilantes and lynching as a last resort.

A Murder Every Other Day

There was no marked betterment in the conditions through the spring, and in May there was another “wave of crime.” And with the renewal of outbreaks of thuggery against women, in the public streets of Chicago, there came again talk of movements to hold indignation meetings and of vigilance committees.

At this time the startling assertion made by Attorney Mackenzie Cleland, in an address on the prevalence of murder and other crimes in Chicago, called forth denials from official sources. Mr. Cleland estimated that a burglary was committed in the city every three hours, a hold-up every six hours, a suicide every day, and a murder every day. Assistant State’s Attorney Olsen said these
figures were greatly in error in some particulars. Coroner Hoffman pointed out that the statistics as to murders of his office showed that during the first one hundred and twenty days of the year there had been only fifty-seven murders in Chicago. However, a city that had fifty-seven murders in one hundred and twenty days – practically one murder every other day – had no
reason to feel relieved. The plain truth which Chicago had to face was, that lawlessness and criminality were still wide-spread, and that as yet the legal agencies for preventing crime were not sufficiently effective.

Attention was naturally called again to the police force. When the previous series of atrocious crimes against women roused the people of Chicago in the late winter to insist that their government really govern, the City Hall had declared that the police force was too small, and that if the city had only a thousand more policemen, women could go about unmolested by lustful thugs, and
human life could be made passably safe in Chicago. The City Hall had been provided the money to pay more policemen, and it had the thousand more or was getting them. Yet there was another “reign of crime,” with “the drag-net out,” – but catching nothing, – and so again the necessity for more indignation meetings and vigilante committees. A list of the criminals who have committed dreadful crimes in Chicago and have slipped through the fingers of the detectives would make a good-sized book and be a shameful record of incompetence. The department not only does not pursue criminals; it is openly charged with protecting them and sharing their gains.

The most searching inquiry ever made into police conditions was that conducted three years ago by Captain Piper, a man of West Point training, and formerly assistant deputy-commissioner of police in New York. Captain Piper evinced the proper attitude toward the whole subject by directing his investigation primarily to the question of what patrolmen were actually doing on their
beats, and he discovered there a condition of actual chaos and neglect. He found that the whole matter of patrolling beats was the subject of a systematic pretense – that officers simply left saloons and other loafing places long enough to pull their boxes at the proper time, and then disappeared until time to pull them again.

“Official Highwaymen and Thieves”

During the summer and frequency of hold-ups and assaults abated, as it usually does with the large exodus of criminal population into the country. The most interesting event in police circles was the trial of Inspector Patrick J. Lavin on the charge of having directed the robbery of the jewelry store of Bernard J. Hagaman, of Wentworth Avenue, in 1901, for which Patrick P. Mahoney, a patrolmen under Lavin, had been sent to the penitentiary. The Inspector was acquitted of this charge, but immediately after resigned from the force. A letter to the Civil Service Commissioners, giving the desk-sargeant’s view of this trial, spoke of certain commanding officers in the police department as “official highwaymen and thieves.” “They are cruel and desperate as a man-eating tiger,” the letter continued; “they stop at nothing, not even at death, to revenge themselves on any member of the department who is opposed to them. Get rid of this band of official highwaymen and give the honest policeman a chance to redeem Chicago and himself in the eyes of the civilized world.”

Annual Winter Harvest of Crime

In spite of the increased police force, by the middle of October Chicago’s annual winter harvest of crime was on in earnest. Thugs, burglars, thieves, and murderers were gathering in from all parts of the country and plying their trade almost openly. The city again abounded in loafers and thugs well known to the slum politicians. The records showed that crime had not diminished in
the least. On the contrary, at the beginning of the winter there were more criminals in Chicago than were ever before, and the police showed themselves totally unable to cope with them.

“Don’t Shop After Dark”

There was a small army of purse-snatchers and pickpockets who came into the business district with the crowds at Christmas time. Chief of Police Collins gave, among others, the following prescriptions for women shoppers, who should be attacked by one or more of these:

“Don’t let the hold-up man scare you to death; keep your wits and forget to faint, and the chances are that you will not lose your pocketbook.

“Keep your wits about you at every moment while you are in the crush.

“Don’t linger about the counters of the stores.

“Don’t scream if you find your purse is being snatched in one of the big
stores; it only creates a panic and gives the thief an opportunity to
disappear.

“Don’t wait too long before starting for home; there are more hold-ups after
dark than in the daytime.”

An Invasion of Tramps

In January of this year, in spite of all the agitation for law and order, the influx of rough characters to the city reached a record height. More than 20,000 men, including beggars, tramps, and nomadic workmen, attracted to Chicago by the open winter, were thronging the streets and choking the cheap lodging-houses. Crimes by street beggars included the beating down of a citizen with a piece of gas-pipe by a tramp, because he was refused alms, and setting fire to a dwelling by another man for the same reason. Men of this class were present in hordes; the streets were filled with tramps; and keepers of the cheap lodging-houses reported that the number of their guests was the largest ever known at that time of year.

Hunting Women as a Sport

The dangers of the Chicago streets, which result from these conditions, are described by Mrs. W. C. H. Keough, a member of the Chicago Board of Education, in an article contributed to the Chicago Tribune, discussing the assaults on women in 1906. She says:

“Hunting women and hitting them on the head with a piece of gas-pipe seems to be the favorite sport of the Chicago Man. The man lies in wait for his prey as an East Indian hunter awaits the approach of a tigress. It is considered rare evidence of sportsmanship to capture the prey near her home, just as it is regarded as proof of supreme skill when the hunter slays the tigress near her
lair.

“It is time,” continues Mrs. Keough, “for Chicago women to arouse themselves from the lethargy and demand protection from the city against the men who hunt down helpless women on the public streets. It seems to be becoming a mere pastime for rowdies, hoodlums, and thugs to attack and insult women on residential streets, inadequately or inefficiently patroled by police. These
ruffians engage in hunting women as sportsmen go out into the forests to bag wild game. They walk for hours along unprotected, shadowy streets, looking for their victims. When they sight a lonely woman, unattended, and powerless to defend herself against the brute force of sinewy arms, they take up the trail. They follow her until, unawares, she walks into the darkness of a deep shadow on a street that is asleep. Then they spring upon her as a hunter springs from ambush when his prey has come within range of his rifle.

“Sometimes they hit her on the head with a bludgeon; sometimes they hold a cloth, saturated with chloroform, to her nostrils; sometimes they bind and gag her and carry her into the seclusion of an alley shed; sometimes they strike her with their bare fists or brass knuckles. It makes little difference which method they use. They attack her, beat her, leave her senseless on the street,
or kill her.

“Generally she resists, and they kill her. Often they shoot her down without warning, as a man rises from his boat among the tall grasses and brings down a duck. After they have ‘bagged’ – using the term of the huntsman – they kill her, rob her, or do worse than rob. “Then what do they do? Enjoying the absolute protection afforded them by the existence of an inadequate and inefficient police force, they walk away from the scene of their crime as unmolested as a hunter returning to camp with his spoils. The dead body is found; or the attacked woman, if Divine mercy stays the hand of death, returns to consciousness and proceeds slowly, haltingly, painfully to her home. All the way home – whether she is a block away or a mile – she does not perhaps meet another person, scarcely ever does she encounter a policeman. At home, between sobs and the palpitations of her fluttering heart, she tells her story, – a story of being hunted on a public street of the second largest city in the freest country on earth – hunted like a dog.

“The police are notified. Sleuths are set hither and thither. A suspect is arrested. He proves an alibi and is discharged from custody; another arrest and another alibi. That is the way it goes.

“The hunters engage in their ‘sport’ unmolested. It is cheaper to hunt women in Chicago than to kick a stray dog or beat a heaving horse. The risk of being caught and fined is not so great. It is easier to hunt women in the streets of Chicago than to hunt game in the closed season. There is no danger of meeting the game warden. Hunting women seems to be growing in favor as a sport in
Chicago.

“The cry that women should not go unaccompanied along the streets of Chicago at night is a cry to which every woman should turn a deaf ear. It should be remembered that thousands upon thousands of women in Chicago are compelled by their financial conditions to go out into the world and put their shoulders to the task of earning a living. Thousands of women are employed at occupations which call them from their homes after nightfall; few in Chicago’s great army of women workers are able to get home from the shops and factories and offices where they are employed until after dusk. They cannot obey the injunctions to remain indoors after dark without giving up hope of earning a living. They must be out after dark. Protection must be afforded them. It is an easy matter for the woman of leisure to stay at home when her husband cannot go out with her. It is easy for this woman to advise her sisters to stay within the protective walls of their homes if they want to escape violence at the hands of the hoodlums that infest the streets. The club-woman, the society woman, the woman of husband and family, the woman in comfortable circumstances must outreach in a helping hand to the less fortunate sister who cannot afford to stay at home, no matter at what peril or at what cost she ventures out.”

The foregoing article is constructed entirely of extracts from Chicago newspapers, covering a period of about fourteen months. These extracts are selected from the large amount of material which has been printed in that time, concerning the prevalence of crime in that city, and the alarm created by it. They have been given verbatim. They are not garbled, nor are they the most terrible that can be found. Chicago has an able, clean, and, generally speaking, a non-sensational press. This is a picture of Chicago as presented by those newspapers. Following will be found the origin of every paragraph in the article:

Paragraph 1, Tribune, January 16; Record Herald, January 7. Paragraph 2,
Tribune, February 25. Paragraph 3, Record Herald, January 14. Paragraph 4,
Tribune, February 5; Record Herald, February 23; Record Herald, January 14.

PRIVATE POLICE FORCE ORGANIZED: – Tribune, February 5.

WOMEN IN DANGER ON THE STREETS: – Paragraph 1, Inter-Ocean, February 10;
Record Herald, January 14. Paragraph 2, Tribune, February 5; Tribune, January
17.

PLAGUE SPOTS AND NURSERIES OF CRIME: – Paragraph 1, Tribune, February 25.
Paragraph 2, Tribune, February 11. Paragraph 3, Tribune, March 18. Paragraph
4, News, October 22. Paragraph 5, Tribune, January 30, Paragraph 6, Tribune,
January 17. Paragraph 7, Tribune, February 14; Record Herald, February 14;
Tribune, February 14.

TALK OF VIGILANTES AND LYNCHINGS: – Paragraph 1, Tribune, January 18; Tribune,
February 14. Paragraph 2, Tribune, January 16. Paragraph 4, Tribune, March 1.
Paragraph 5, Record Herald, February 23.

A MURDER EVERY OTHER DAY: – Paragraph 1, Inter-Ocean, May 14. Paragraph 2,
Record Herald, May 17. Paragraph 3, Inter-Ocean, May 14; Chronicle, August 15
and October 2. Paragraph 4, Tribune, January 18.

OFFICIAL HIGHWAYMEN AND THIEVES: – Journal, October 15.

ANNUAL WINTER HARVEST OF CRIME: – Journal, October 20 and November 23; Inter-
Ocean, November 10; Journal, November 28.

“DON’T SHOP AFTER DARK”: – Record Herald, December 17.

AN INVASION OF TRAMPS: – News, January 11, 1907; Post, January 11, 1907;
Tribune, January 12, 1907.

HUNTING WOMEN AS A SPORT: – Tribune, February 11.

Editorial Note:

McClure’s Magazine, in this and in the preceding number, has presented two portrayals of life in Chicago. The first was a study of its system of civil government and its results; the second an account, taken entirely from its own reputable newspapers, of the conditions which exist as the fruit of that system. The matter was summed up editorially last year by the Chicago Tribune:
Chicago has become a “snug” harbor for criminals. The tramp of the fields, the desperate characters from the Lake ports and other cities come here to ply their trade in winter. Chicago has come to be known over the country as a bad town for men of good character and a good town for men of bad character.

The reason for this condition is vicious political influence in the administration of justice. On February 2nd the grand jury, while discussing the prevalence of gambling-houses and disorderly saloons in the city declared: “It is our deliberate judgment that such a brazen exhibition of lawlessness cannot continue without official connivance.”

The system which brings about this maladministration is perfectly well understood in Chicago. It is discussed continually in the editorials of its daily papers. The Inter-Ocean says, for instance: If Chief of Police Collins is really determined to chase out the loafer and the thug, it need not take all winter to accomplish it. It can be done speedily, if the officers and men of the police department are first convinced that the doing of it will not bring punishment to them rather than reward. The city abounds in loafers and thugs well known to the police. The fact that they are “well-known” to the police as loafers and thugs, while favorably known to the slum politicians, must not be permitted to deter the men on the police force from performing their duty. Family, social, and political connections with the loafers and thugs must be ignored if Chief Collins is really intends to redeem the city from the reign of the confidence man, the footpad, the highwayman, and the burglar.

And the Chronicle, under the heading, “The Vice Trust”: What are people to think when nameless and almost invisible parties go to the purlieus of vice in a certain locality and give them an option between selling out and being closed up by the police; and when, after refusing to sell, they are in fact closed up by the police; and when, after being closed up, other parties take their places and carry on the same haunts of vice in the same way without police interference? People must draw their own inferences, but there are those who do not hesitate to say that there is a regular combination in this city, with a large financial backing, which does this thing, and that it can, at will, cause the police force to shut up certain places of vice or to protect them.

Put plainly and simply, the fact is that crime and vice have been breaking down orderly civilization in Chicago because the ward politician, and not the people, has been able to dictate the administration of law.


 

Contributed 25 Jan 2013 by Deb Haines
Transcribed from McClure’s Magazine, 1907, Volume 29, pages 67-73

1905 Historical Sketch of Chicago’s Confectionery Trade

Biographical Data Extractions

ABBS, Albert E.
ABBS, Mrs. Albert E., member of the Ladies Auxiliary of Chicago Jobbing Confectioners
Association when first formed March 1, 1905 (Group Photo Page 78, text 125)
Bought out wagon jobbers business of Henry MEISTERLING May 1, 1894
President, Chicago Jobbing Confectioners’ Association, “…is a very successful jobber with a
large trade outside of Chicago; a member of the firm of A. E. ABBS & CO.; has been a
delegate fro Chicago to the National Association and is chairman of (the) Banquet
Committee. He is prominent, in church circles, being deacon of the Ada Street M. E.
Church.” 1905
Ad: “A.. E. ABBS & CO. (Photos of A. E. ABBS and R. MARUGG) 30 Park Avenue “Jobbers of all
kinds of Fine Confectionery, Your wants and orders will be promptly attended to.”
Page 30 (Photo), 35 (Photo/Ad), 51, 78 (Mrs. ABBS Group Photo), 93, 125, 187

ADAMS’
Licorice, Tutti-Frutti Chewing Gum
Page 68 (Ad)

ADAMSON, Axel S.
Started jobbing this year (1893)
Still on the road 1905
“…with good reputation as a jobber”
Ad: “A. S. ADAMSON Dealer in Fine Candies 329 West Ohio St.”
page 107, 182 (Ad)

AHLER, J.
Ad: “J. AHLER Wholesale Confectioner 231 W. 14th St.”
Page 182 (Ad)

ALBERDING, Charles A.
ALBERDING, L. C.
TRIMBLE & ALBERDING at 191 and 193 South Desplaines Street entered manufacturing in late 1886
Charles A. ALBERDING joins firm which becomes L.C. ALBERDING & BRO. 1887
Page 81

ALEXANDER, H.
H. ALEXANDER & CO. started at 14 State Street on January 1
“…began selling candies at a very low figure, had circulars distributed all over Chicago and suburbs and did so much business that they failed” and were succeeded M. NATHAN & CO.
Page 41

ALLEGRETTI, Benedetto
(See also ALLEGRETTI BROS. – only “G.” mentioned, but brothers could include Benedetto and
Frank)
BENEDETTO ALLEGRETTI CO. began manufacturing at 213 Randolph in 1902
Page 119

ALLEGRETTI BROS.
(See also Benedetto and Frank ALLEGRETTI — BROS. unnamed except for “G.” below, but could include these two?)
131 Wabash
Began manufacturing 1896
Brothers separated 1897, one staying at 129 Wabash under the name of the ALLEGRETTI CHOCOLATE CREAM CO., and opened a new store at 159 State
ALLEGRETTI CHOCOLATE CREAM CO. gave up store at 129 Wabash, but kept store at 159 State.
899
G. ALLEGRETTI started a new house known as ALLEGRETTI & CO. AT 179 State 1897
G. ALLEGRETTI partnered with I.A. RUBEL and B. F. RUBEL and changed company name from
ALLEGRETTI & CO. to ALLEGRETTI & RUBEL 1899
RUBEL & ALLEGRETTI opened a wholesale department at 53 Lake Street 1901
Page 111, 113. 115, 119
ALLEGRETTI, Frank
(See also ALLEGRETTI BROS. — Only ALLEGRETTI named is “G.”, but brothers might include
Benedetto and Frank)
Began wholesale and manufacturing business at 192 Grand Avenue 1901
Page 119

ALLEN, J. W.
Ad: “Established 1881 J. W. ALLEN & CO., Manufacturers and Jobbers of Supplies and Machinery, for Bakers, Confectioners, Soda Dispensers, Ice Cream Manufacturers, Hotels,
Caterers, Etc.,
208-210 Washington Blvd., Chicago”
Page 178 (Ad)

ALLER, Pinkus
(See also ALLER, Robel, could be father/son?)
Jobber who began late 1880’s and remained in business to 1903
Page 81

ALLER, Robel
(See also ALLER, Pinkus, could be father/son?)
Jobber who was succeeded by his son (1890’s?)
Page 79

AMBROSIA CHOCOLATE COMPANY
Began manufacturing at 3333 State Street in 1898
Moved to 42 and 44 Michigan Avenue 1900
331-333-335 Fifth Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 1905
Ad: “Buster Brown Chocolate wafers, chocolate nonpareils in boxes, pails, and barrells.
Send for samplsa and quotations to AMBROSIA CHOCOLATE CO.”
Page 106 , 115, 117

AMERICAN BADGE COMPANY
119 Madison St., Chicago
Ad: “AMERICAN BADGE COMPANY, 119 Madison St. Chicago, Badges, Buttons, Banners,
Advertising, Novelties.”
Page 186 (Ad)

AMERICAN CANDY COMPANY
Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Ad: “AMERICAN CANDY COMPANY Manufacturers of High Grade Chocolates, Milwaukee, Wisconsin”
Page 131 (Ad)

AMERICAN CARAMEL COMPANY
Ad: “AMERICAN CARAMEL COMPANY, Makers of Dependable Sellers in Confectionery (10 types
listed), Factories located at York, Pa., Lancaster, Pa., Philadelphia, Pa.”
Page 174 (Ad)

AMERICAN CHOCOLATE CONFECTION CO.
Ad: “Specialties — Fine chocolates, pail goods, penny goods — ZENITH — Always the same
the Jobbers’ Favorites — AMERICAN CHOCOLATE CONFECTION COMPANY – 123-125 La Salle Ave,
Chicago”
Page 20 (Ad)

AMERICAN CHOCOLATE COMPANY
Bought out COSTELLO’S CHOCOLATES from P. J. COSTELLO at 161-165 South Jefferson Street
1901
Page 95

AMERICAN CHOCOLATE CREAM CO.
Began manufacturing at 161 South Jefferson in 1902
Page 119

ANDERSON, Francis
“located for a few years at 166 North Clark Street”
Page 25

ARVOLDT, O.
Began jobbing business in November 1, 1903
Sold out to L. Olson March 1, 1904
Page 123, 125

The AUSTIN CANDY KITCHEN
Ad: “The AUSTIN CANDY KITCHEN, W. N. SHIELDS, Prop., Manufacturer and Retailer of
Everything in Candies, 117 North Park Avenue”
Page 170 (Ad)

BACCIGALUPI
PUZZO & BACCIGALUPI
Began manufacturing cocoanut goods on Chicago Avenue near Wells Street
Burned out in Great Fire
Resumed and did some business until 1873
Page 47

BACHMAN, Moses
268 South Clinton 1891
Began manufacturing at 263 South Desplaines1898
Page 95, 115

BACKMAN, S.
Manufactured at 211 South Water Street until 1877
Went out of business 1877
Page 53

BAIR, Ira B.
Ad: “IRA B. BAIR, Manufacturer of high grade HAVANA CIGARS, Wholesale and Retail, No. 7
South Campbell Avenue”
Page 186 (Ad)

BANZHAFF, Charles
North Water Street 1846
Continues in business until he evidently retired 1850
Working as a clerk for E. FRANKENTHAL, a dealer in cigars and tobacco at 62 Clark Street
1852-1853
Bought out John EISENBEIS and restarted own candy business at 90 Wells Street 1853
Retired 1857
Page 11

BARBIERY, Louis
Canal Street between Washington & Randolph St. 1854
Page 12-13

BARRETT, M. L.
Employed by P. L. GARRITY as bookkeeper at 39 Randolph Street 1866
Page 19

BARRETT, William
Began jobbing business in 1898
Sold out
Page 115

BARROWS, D. A. & Co.
1847
Bought out business of William HOSSACK 147 Lake Street east of and close to Clark Street
prior to 1843
Remained in business for a year or more when he gave it up and moved to Galena, Illinois,
where he died
Page 11

BARTHOLOMAE, F.
Bought route from Ira A. BILHARZ to begin jobbing business at 7046 Parnell Avenue in 1902
Page 121

BARTLES, Fred H.
Began jobbing candies and did a large business, which however, did not seem to be a paying
one. 1893
He remained for about three years at it 1896
Is now in the grocery business 1905
Page 107

BAUM
FRYE, KLEINBECK & BAUM
195 Michigan Avenue
One of new houses that started business “this year” (1890’s?)
Page 95

BAUMAN
WUEST-BAUMAN-HUNT CO.
Cleveland, Ohio
Ad: “We are the originators and makers of the only GENUINE ITALIAN CREAM on the market.
Flavors: Vanila, Chocolate, Orange, Peach Also the original PRINCESS KISS, A most delicious
piece of molasses candy. We also make Creameata Nut Nougat and Vanila and Chocolate Walnut
block. BEWARE OF IMITATIONS! Attempts have been and are being made to imitate our goods.
Our goods are still unequaled. The WUEST-BAUMAN-HUNT CO. Cleveland, Ohio.”
Page 139 (Ad)

BAUMEISTER, Eli A.
Began jobbing in late 1880’s
Sold out to O. W. LOERCKE 1899
Page 85

BEATTIE, John B.
BEATTIE, Mrs. John B., first 2nd Vice President, Ladies Auxiliary of Chicago Jobbing
Confectioners Association when formed March 1, 1905 (Group Photo Page 78, text Page 7, 125)
Bought out J. Harvey HATHAWAY’S jobbing business December 1, 1893
“Took a prominent part in the (jobbing) business, having served on almost every important
committee in the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association. He is a strong opponent of unfair
measures, has been President of the body and is the only man not elected as a
representative who was sent by the local association to the national body.”
Ad: “J. B. BEATTIE, 2485 W. Monroe St. Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 78 (Group Photo), 99, 105, 125, 170 (Ad)

BEECH, Sidney F.
Ad: GARDEN CITY FIREWORKS, Ripper Crackers, Torpedoes, Flags, Balloons, Lanterns, Etc.
Manufactured by: Consolidated Fireworks Co of America, 30 and 32 So. Water St. Chicago,
Chicago Branch Mngr. Sidney F. BEECH, Mgr. Write for catalog and prices”
Page 142 (Ad).

BEECHER, Wesley
(See also BEECHLER, Wesley — could be the same man?)
“Frank PEOPLES ran a wagon for a few months for Wesley BEECHER and in the fall of 1863 went
into business for himself.”
Page 25

BEECHLER, Wesley
(See also BEECHER, Wesley — could be the same man?)
Started manufacturing at 132 Dearborn Street March 1863 – October 9, 1871 (Fire)
Went into tobacco business
Page 25

BEILFUSS
SEVERINGHAUS & BEILFUSS CO., INC.
Printers, Linotypers, Book Binders and Stationers
448 Milwaukee Ave
566-568 Ogden Ave.
Chicago
Page 72 (Ad)

BELL, Jonas N.
Started jobbing and is now (1905) a manufacturer of sweets at 606 West Madison Street
As Senior Partner began manufacturing as BELL & PFEIFFER at 40 Fifth Avenue and 612 West
Madison 1901
Has also manufactured vending machines
Ex-Vice President of the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association
Ad: (Photo of BELL) “JONAS N. BELL Manufacturer and Jobber of High Grade Confections, Sole
manufacturer of the Original “Mexican Penochis” as made in Old Mexico, Tin Boxes 25 cents.
Texas Pecan Clusters made of Texas Selected Pecan Nuts, Tin Boxes 30 cents, 604 W. Madison
Street — Chicago”
Page 83, 119, 122 (Ad/Photo)

BENDA, J.
BENDA & HYNOUS
Bought out jobbing business of W. M. URBANEK (also spelled URBANCK) in March 1902
Do a large business at 1186 Spaulding Avenue 1905
On the Entertainment Committee of the National Jobbing Confectioners’ Association
Convention
Ad: “BENDA & HYNOUS 1184 South Spaulding Avenue, We are the SPECIALTY men you are looking
for. Have you seen our Penny BUTTON & BADGE PRIZE — The greatest seller on the market.
We also have new candy by the carloads. Drop us a Postal and be convinced.”
Page 53, 99, 119, 146 (Ad)

BENNING, H. J.
Succeeded William PETERSON as a jobber April 5, 1894
Still in business 1905
Resides at: 363 Orchard Street
Page 107

BENRIGHTER, F.
Sold jobbing business at 4730 State Street to George FOX in September 1902
Page 121.

BERG, John V. (Mrs.)
Daughter of John C. NEEMES
Page 31

BERKEL, John
Began in jobbing business April 1905
Ad: “JOHN BERKEL, 270 Hudson Ave. Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 125, 155 (Ad)

BERRY, John (father)
BERRY, S. (son)
BERRY’S
Employed by W. B. BRAZLETON & Co.
Began manufacturing at 241 West Madison Street
Opened factory at at Washington Boulevard and Sangamon Street and added new store at 957
West Madison Street 1886
Had stores in “almost every section of Chicago”
Had candy department at the Fair
Added ice cream business
“Added three stores to his string” — main stores located at 148 and 201 State Street and
155 Madison Street and factory located at northeast corner of Sangamon Street and
Washington Blvd. (1892)
On death of John BERRY, business managed by son, S. BERRY
Manufactory moved to large new building 232 and 236 West Congress Street west of Morgan May
1, 1905
Employed William Leimert as foreman of new factory 1905
Ad: “BERRY’S Berry’s famous specialties, renowned for their purity, sold to jobbers.
Genuine chocolate Dipped Nougat. Full Cream Chocolate Dipped Caramels, 200. Molasses Taffy
in pans or bars,. Full Cream Caramels, in pans or 5# boxes. Peanut Brittle in 10 cent
pkg. And 3# and 5# boxes. Try a sample case of our goods. New Factory 232-34-36 W.
Congress Street, Chicago.”
Page 28 (Ad), 31, 59, 81, 95

BETZ, Michael
Bought wagon and route from H. E. SCHAEFER, 353 West Huron Street, and began jobbing
business at 3258 Lowe Avenue March 7, 1904
Still in business 1905
Ad: “M. BETZ 3258 Lowe Ave. Jobbing Confectioner”
Page 123, 155 (Ad)

BIDNA, O. N.
Began jobbing business at 181 South Leavitt Street on November 6, 1903
Ad: “O.N. BIDNA 181 S. Leavitt St. Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 123, 178 (Ad)

BILHARZ, Ira A.
(Note: called J. A. BILHARZ on page 109)
Bought out jobbing business of C. N. FIELD August 1, 1900
Sold route to F. BARTHOLOMAE September 1902
7201 Harvard Avenue
Page 109, 117, 121

BLACK, W. H.
Started as manufacturer 1895
77 Van Buren Street
Page 67

BLAHA, V. C.
Bought out William MEISTERLING’S jobbing business at 2386 Cornelia Street August 5, 1903
Member of the Entertainment Committee of the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association
Ad: “V. C. BLAHA, 2386 Cornelia Street. Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 123, 134 (Ad)

BLITZ, Louis
Began the manufacture of prize specialties September 1894
Still in the business 1905
Page 111

BLOCK, John
Partnered with Charles A. SCHUMACHER under firm name of CHARLES A. SCHUMACHER & CO. to
manufacture candy at 623 Center Ave. January 15, 1888
Moved to Eighteenth and Halsted Streets
Partnership dissolved with SCHUMACHER’S retirement in 1892
Began jobbing business until his death
F.C. TORMOEHLEN ran the business for BLOCK’S widow finally purchasing it several years
later
Page 87, 97, 117

BLOME, George
Ad: “GILT EDGE trade mark — Penny goods, French Mixtures, Lozenges, A. B. Gum work, Hard
Boiled Candy and Fine Chocolates — We sell to jobbers only — The Geo. BLOME & SON CO,
Baltimore, Maryland”
Page 151 (Ad)

BLOOMINGTON CARAMEL COMPANY
Bloomington, Illinois
Ad: “In purchasing look for the Label “Royal Bloomington Confections” It is the sign of a
quick seller and a repeater. Remember “The Good Eating Kind.”
Page 131 (Ad)

BOBLIT, A. N.
Ad: “A. N. BOBLIT, Carpenter and Builder, Store and Office Fixtures, General Jobbing, 172
E. Van Buren Street, Telephone Harrison 584″
Page 114 (Ad)

BOFINGER, R.
Began jobbing business April 27, 1897
Resides at; 3601 Fifth Avenue 1905
Ad: “R. BOFINGER, 3601 5th Avenue, Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 113, 155 (Ad)

BOISIN, Peter
Began jobbing business at 1035 North Rockwell Street May 1903
Ad: “Peter BOISIN Wholesale Confectioner 1035 N. Rockwell St.”
Page 123, 135

BOLES
BOLES & KEHOE
Began manufacturing candies at 71 State Street and still in business 1905
Main business to supply the retail trade
Page 69

BOLGER, F. F.
Bought out route from J. M. CASE September and sold to George HAWKES 1887
Page 75, 85

BOLGER, Thos. J.
Vice President of stock company formed under the name of M. E. PAGE Confectionery Company.
August 18, 1890
Stock company failed and went out of business August 18, 1897
Page 33

BOLZ, Charles
Began jobbing in 1894
Sold out in 1902
Page 107

BOOSE, George
Bought jobber business of Peter CONLEY which had been a large one but had gradually
decreased due to Mr. CONLEY’S sickness and death May 1893
Bought jobber business of A. Conklin June 2, 1893
Still in business 1905
Resides at 5623 South Elizabeth Street 1905
Page 59, 77, 103

BORDEN’S CONDENSED MILK CO.
Caramel Department New York
GOLD MEDAL St. Louis 1904
Page 56 (Ad)

BOWDEN, John H.
Began as wagon jobber in 1872
Sold out to H. YOUNKER August 13, 1874
Page 51

BOWER, E.
Began manufacturing at 27 North Clark 1854
Page 13

BOWERS, Benjamin
Jobber who sold out in 1885
Page 79

BOWMAN, Jesse B.
Began manufacturing candy 45 Wells Street 1854
Page 13

BOYNTON, Cal
Employed by F. W. RUECKHEIM and brother Louis (F. W. RUECKHEIM & BRO.) 1875
“…an expert in inventing new and salable confections.”
Page 49

BRACH, E. J.
Employed by BUNTE BROS. & SPOEHR
Began own business as jobber
President of DREIBUS-HEIM Co. 1891
Restarted own business at 227 North Avenue February 1, 1905
Officer of the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association
Page 75, 77

BRANDENBURG, Charles
Recording Secretary, Chicago Jobbing Confectioners’ Association, past representative to the
national organization, and filled position of sergeant at arms for several terms, “…has the
confidence of the members of the Chicago J. C. A.” 1905
Bought out jobbing business of August LEUSCH August 1, 1892
Still in business 1905
Ad: “C. BRANDENBURG, 721 August St. Wholesale confectioner”
Resides at 721 Augusta Street
Page 42 (Photo), page 63, 95, 99, 155 (Ad). 187

BRAUN
HABICHT BRAUN & CO.
Ad: “New York – Chicago, HABICHT BRAUN & CO. Importers, Manufacturers and Dealers in Raw
Material , Everything to Manufacture Good Candies”
Page 96

BRAVERMAN, Barney
Built up a jobbing business in connection with his retail trade, starting in April (1891?)
Ad: “BARNEY BRAVERMAN, Jobbers of Fine Confections, 592 W. Taylor Street”
Page 103, 114 (Ad)

BRAZLETON, W. B.
W. B. BRAZLETON & CO.
Employed John BERRY
Page 59

BRILEY, W. J.
Began jobbing business at 416 West Fifty-first Place in May 1903
Member of the Amusement Committee of the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association
Ad: “W. J. BRILEY, 416 W. 51st Place, Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 123 155 (Ad)

BROOKS, George H.
Originally a wholesale grocer and made considerable money in that business
Partnered with Charles SCHAFER in CHAS. SCHAFER & SONS at 158 Monroe Street 1858
Retires in less than a year.
Buys out Francis W. HICKMAN becomes SASSAMAN & BROOKS at 178 State Street 1859-61
Opens own business at 77 Randolph Street 1861-1863
Bought out C. W. SANFORD, deceased, of C.W. SANDORD & Co. and changed to BROOKS &
NEEMES 1870-79
Partnered with Louis F. HAEHNLEN in BROOKS & HAEHNLEN at corner of Michigan Ave. and Lake
Street January 1, 1879
BROOKS & HAEHNLEN moved to 9, 11, 13, and 15 River Street 1882
Employed Richard J. KNAPP
Bought out HAEHNLEN’S interest and renamed firm “GEO. H. BROOKS CO.” 1885
Resumed manufacturing candies at 21 River Street, but didn’t remain long in business due to
poor health (l
1886
Page 13, 15, 17, 21, 29, 31, 63, 77

BROOKSBANK BROS.
Ad: “BROOKSBANK BROS. Manufacturers of Carriages and Wagons, Robey St. & Ogden Av.,
Chicago, Repairing and Painting a Specialty”
Page 159 (Ad)

BROWN, John
Began jobbing business 1900
Ad: “JOHN BROWN 6002 Sangamon St. Wholesale confectioner”
Page 119, 155 (Ad)

BROWNING, Frederick
Described as one of “the parties who were interested in and who were stockholders” involved
in controversial sale by George V. FRYE “under execution” of the FRYE CARAMEL COMPANY at
207 Illinois Street to the OATMAN BROTHERS (E. J. OATMAN and F. G. OATMAN) which resulted
in “considerable litigation.” January 18, 1897
Page 89

BRUGGEMEYER, Albert E.
BRUGGEMEYER, Mrs. Albert E., first President Ladies Auxiliary of Chicago Jobbing
Confectioners Association when formed March 1, 1905(Group Photo Page 78, text 125)
Bought out jobbing business of Henry ENGELN soon after 1893
“At once took a prominent position in the jobbing business and has been Vice President of
the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association, a delegate to the National Association, and is
Chairman of the Finance Committee for the national convention.”
Wholesale confectionery business at 128 W. Adams Street 1905
Chairman Finance Committee, Chicago Jobbing Confectioners’ Association
Ad: “The most successful jobber in Chicago. Why? Because the profit in your business ion
the goods you SELL not on the goods you BUY. Therefore you should call on A. E.
BRUGGEMEYER Importer and Distributor of the Fastest Selling PENNY GOODS in the Country. I
carry a large stock of Staple Goods and chocolates. My wagon makes regular trip and would
like to call on you when you want something to Boom Your Business. Write or call at 128 W.
Adams Street, Chicago.”
Page 12 (Photo/Ad), 58 (Photo), 78 (Mrs. BRUGGEMEYER Group Photo), 105, 107, 125

BRUMMER, Robert
Began jobbing business 1894
Sold out in 1896
Page 107

BUCHHOLZ
BUCHHOLZ BROS. & SCHULZ
Partnered with Julius H. SCHULZ
Not long in business
Page 55

BUGLER
BUGLER & GOBEL
Began manufacturing at 56 North Jefferson in 1902
Page 119

BUNTE, Albert
BUNTE, Gustavus
BUNTE, Ferdinand
BUNTE BROS. & SCHULZ
Partnered with Charles A. SPOEHR as BUNTE BROS. & SPOEHR at 416 State Street 1876
Principal business selling to wagon jobbers, and had two wagons of their own driven by
Michael KOPP and Adam SCHOTT
Firm dissolved 1877
Brothers went to work for Kranz.
Albert and Gustavus BUNTE partnered with Julius H. Schulz at 184 Indiana Street May 1,
1879
Did a large business, but dissolved when BUNTE brothers entered into new partnership with
SPOEHR and moved to 83 Market Street Fall 1880
Moved to 73 and 74 West Monroe Street 1885
Joined by brother Ferdinand (former foreman for John KRANZ) March 1885
Employed Edward H. SCANLAN to head city sales 1888
Employed about 200 hands 1896
Albert withdraws and partners with George FRANK at southeast corner of Fifth Avenue and
Jackson Street as ALBERT BUNTE & CO. 1885/6
ALBERT BUNTE & CO. changes name to BUNTE, FRANK & CO. and moves to La Salle and Ontario
Streets 1886/7
Albert BUNTE withdraws from BUNTE, FRANK & CO., goes to work for John KRANZ as foreman
where he still works in 1905
Ad: (Five pages) “BUNTE, SPOEHR & CO., CHICAGO, The leading confectioners — Just a Word
with you, please: We are such unassuming people we fear our modesty has prevented us from
proclaiming to the public, what our customers have known for many years, the fact that our
goods have been the standard of excellence for more than a quarter of a century. That old
adage, “by their work ye shall know them” seemed to be sufficient in former years, but in
these busy days, if we expect to retain the reputation we have held so long, and guarded so
jealously, we must not only make the best Goods, but must let the Dealer and Consumer know
that we are doing so. Lest we weary you, we will speak briefly, not of ourselves, but of a
few of our Candies that have not only helped to establish the reputation of which we are so
proud, but have aided Chicago in achieving the distinction of being the Great Candy Center.
(followed by three pages of candy descriptions) Always look for the Trade mark, and if it
is on the box you will know you are getting the best…..BUNTE, SPOEHR & CO. 139 and 141 West
Monroe St., Chicago. (Trademark is white “B. S. & Co.” inside a black box, inside a black-
outlined white circle.
Page 53, 55, 81, 200-205 (Ad)

BURNHAM, A. B.
SMITH-BURNHAM CO. with Richard Smith to produce butterscotch at 193 South Desplaines on
March 1, 1890
Partnership dissolves and company renamed BURHAM BROS. 193 South Desplaines 1892
Eventually failed
A. B. BURNHAM started a wagon, which he sold to William Hagemeister Feb. 1, 1905
Page 87, 95

BUTLER, J. F.
Began a jobbing business in February 1, 1901
Resides at 1989 Gladys Avenue 1905
Member of the Executive Committee of the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association and the
Entertainment Committee of the National Convention
Ad: “J. F. BUTLER, 1989 Gladys Ave., Wholesale Confectioners”
Page 119, 155 (Ad)

CACHARES & CO.
Began manufacturing at 4516 State 1900
Page 117

CALLAWAY, W. L.
Chancellor Commander, Knights of Pythias
Ad: “VAN BUREN Lodge No. 531. Knights of Pythias, Castle Hall — N. W. Corner Madison St.,
and California Ave., Chicago. Regular Conventions every Wednesday evening at eight o’clock;
Rank Work first three conventions of each month. Visitors cordially invited. W. L.
CALLAWAY, Chancellor Commander. W. L. CHRYSTAL, K. of R. & S.”
Page 114 (Ad)

CAMERON, J. W.
Ran a wagon for a number of years, but sold to Henry MESTERLING July 30, 1893
In partnership with MARBACH bought out T. H. JENSON at 171 and 173 South Desplaines
creating CAMERON & MARBACH May 1, 1904
Tore down building and relocated to 102 and 104 West Adams Street (formerly owned by Arthur
STEIN) where they have floor space of about 10,000 square feet May 1, 1905
Ad: “CAMERON & MARBACH, Successors to T. H. JENSEN, Manufacturing Confectioners, 102-104 W.
Adams Street, Chicago, Italian Cream and Cocoanut Specialties, Fine Sherbert Penny Goods,
Manufacturers of the well known “MILLS BRAND” Salted Peanuts”
Page 32 (Ad), 91,123

CAMPBELL, James
Began in jobbing business in 1902
Page 121

CAMPBELL, R. J.
Manufactured candy at the southwest corner of Lake and Paulina Streets 1860’s
“Did a very fair business”
Employed Lawrence E. LENT (May 1, 1868 – May 1, 1872) and Frank FERNEOUGH as city salesmen
Died 1875
Business bought out by Frank FERNEOUGH in 1876
Page 37, 39, 53

CANDY, Robert
(see also Thomas and Sydney CANDY, brothers)
Started business at 644 West Lake Street May 1, 1870
Joined by brothers, Thomas and Sydney, 1872
Robert and Sydney move to Columbus, Ohio 1873 where still in business 1905
Branch in St Louis, Mo.
Page 47

CANDY, Sydney
(see also Thomas and Robert CANDY, brothers)
Partnered with brothers, Robert and Sydney CANDY, in firm called CANDY BROTHERS 1872
Robert and Sydney moved to Columbus, Ohio, where they continued candy business 1873
Page 47

CANDY, Thomas
(see also Robert and Thomas CANDY, brothers)
Partnered with brothers, Robert and Sydney CANDY, in firm called CANDY BROTHERS 1872
Robert and Sydney moved to Columbus, Ohio, where they continued candy business 1873
Thomas moved to 136 Twenty-sixth Street manufacturing tablets, buttercups and cough drops
exclusively 1873
Firm name changed from CANDY BROTHERS to THOMAS CANDY 1893
Moved to 57 North Washtenaw Avenue 1893
Moved to 1522 West Lake Street 1894
Retired 1895
Page 47, 99

CAPP, M.
“M. CAPP, formerly city salesman for F. W. RUECKHEIM & BRO., entered the jobbing field
early in the year, and sold out to William J. Stadter (Note: spelled STATTER on page 97) in
March, 1892, going into the jobbing business at Racine, Wisconsin , where he has been quite
successful.”
Page 79, 97

CARLI, Paul
South Water Street near Wells Street 1839
Gave up business and moved from city
Page 11

CARLISLE, W. D.
Bought jobbing business from Gust HILDEBRANDT 1894
Page 107

CARR
DAVIE & CARR
Began manufacturing specialties at 298 North Wells Street, burned out, resumed for a few
months in 1872
Page 43

CARSON
CARSON, PIRIE & CO. purchases lease for building at southeast corner of Aberdeen and
Madison Street, paying Robert H. FISH a bonus of $2500 Winter of 1870
Page 33

CASE, J. Merton
Began new business — the selling out of candy wagons and routes — “this year” (late
1880’s?)
“His method was to sell a few times to stores, so that he could claim that he had done some
business with them, and advertise to sell out his horse, wagon and route, having a new
wagon built to be ready to start again just as soon as he got a customer for the one he was
running. Mr. Case made quite a profit in this way and sold out a great many routes,
extending over several years. It got to be so well known to every confectioner in the
business, manufacturers, jobbers and retailers that it was not an easy mater for him to
sell out, as dealers informed the would-be purchasers what they were buying. Of the many
routes he sold out but three buyers are now in business — L. PELLES, Joseph B. HELLMAN
and John L. DICKHAUT .” 1905
Sold a jobbing confectionery route to Joseph B. HELLMAN October 1885
Sold out to F. F. BOLGER and abandoned the business and went on the stage in 1895
Page 67, 75, 79

CAYZER CONFECTIONERY Co.
Began manufacturing at 101 Kinzie Street 1900
Page 117

CHALMERS, Wm.
Partnered with Louis F. HAEHNLEN in L.F. HAEHNLEN & COMPANY (manufacturing and wholesale)
at 42 South Water 1876-1877
Sold out to Wm. R. Stevens 1877
Page 21

CHAPMAN, T. W.
Sold out jobbing business to W. E. MULLARKEY March 1905
Page 125

CHAPPELL, R. W.
119 Randolph Street (manufacturing with C. L. SHEPHERD) aft. 1854
Page 13

CHARLES
GEORGE & CHARLES
Succeeded to business of the TORMOEHLEN & BROS. moving it to 108 and 110 West Adams Street
Sold out to The NATIONAL CANDY CO.
Page 43

CHESTED
Employed Adolph GEORG at 31 North Clark Street (post 1864)
Page 37

CHICAGO CANDY COMPANY
Began manufacturing at 169 South Desplaines 1899
Began manufacturing at 236 Fulton Street 1902
Page 115. 119

CHRYSTAL, W. L.
K. of R. & S., Knights of Pythias
Ad: “VAN BUREN Lodge No. 531. Knights of Pythias, Castle Hall — N. W. Corner Madison St.,
and California Ave., Chicago. Regular Conventions every Wednesday evening at eight o’clock;
Rank Work first three conventions of each month. Visitors cordially invited. W. L.
CALLAWAY, Chancellor Commander. W. L. CHRYSTAL, K. of R. & S.”
Page 114

CLAY, E. C.
E. C. CLAY & CO. began manufacturing at 148 State Street 1899
Page 115

COBB, A. S.
Began manufacturing at 373 Fifth Avenue 1901
Page 119

COBLENS, Zacariah
Louisville, Kentucky
First Guard of newly formed National Jobbing Confectioners’ Association August 1895
Page 93

COHEN, Henry A.
Began as jobber 1886
He “…has been, in turn, a jobber, manufacturer, salesman on the road, solicitor jobber,
manufacturer, jobber, workman, clerk, jobber, and is now a salesman, or was; but it is not
an easy matter to locate him. Mr. Cohen has at different times made great efforts to
capture the city trade by offering big inducements to purchasers, but so far has not made a
marked success.”
Page 81

COLBURN, Levi J.
Bought out interest of Michael SCANLAN and partnered with Edward and John F. SCANLAN in
SCANLAN BROS. & COLBURN at 138 South Water Street 1869
Edward SCANLAN retires and, partnered only with John F. SCANLAN, firm becomes SCANLAN &
COLBURN 1870
Bought out John F. SCANLAN at 78 State Street and firm becomes L. J. COLBURN & CO. 1871
Remains at 78 State Street until burned out October 9, 1871
Opens factory at 128 North May Street 1871
Opens retail store at 638 West Lake Street 1871
Moved to 67 Randolph Street 1874-1876
Retired 1876
Page 17

COLE, B. M.
COLE, Mrs. B. M., first Sergeant at Arms, Ladies Auxiliary of Chicago Jobbing Confectioners
Association when formed March 1, 1905 (Group Photo page 78, text 125)
Bought jobbing business from Frank HUNT on a transfer of card from Robert SPEAR November
1902
On Badge Committee of the National Jobbing Confectioners’ Association Convention 1905
Ad: “B. M. COLE Jobbing Confectioner 3554 Cottage Grove Ave.”
3554 Cottage Grove Avenue
Page 78 (Mrs. Cole in Group Photo), 121, 125, 135 (Ad)

COLEMAN, John E. (Mrs.)
Daughter of John C. NEEMES
Page 31

COLLINS, Archibald
Began jobbing business at 8757 Escanaba Avenue January 7 1903
Ad: “A. COLLINS Wholesale and Retail Dealer in Confectionery, Stationery and School Store
Supplies, All kinds of school books. 8957 Escanaba Ave.”
Page 121, 142 (Ad)

CONFECTIONERS’ AND BAKERS’ SUPPLY CO.
Began manufacturing at 52 and 54 Wabash Avenue in 1886
Moved to 272 Madison Street sharing space with I.F. DICKSON who became member of firm
Bought out DICKSON 1899
Moved to 218-220 East Washington Street in 1902 where still located in 1905
AD: “New Machinery Handy Tools, convenient utensils, first quality supplies for
confectioners and ice cream makers. Our catalog will show you. 218 & 220 Washington Street,
Chicago”
Page 81, 85, 88 (Ad)

CONFECTIONERS’ JOURNAL
Ad: “Subscription price, @2.00 a year; single copies 25 cents, 130 pages each month,
Confectioners Journal, The oldest paper of its class in the world; Established 1874 Devoted
exclusively to the interest of the confectionery baker; Associate member of the National
Confectioners’ Association; A monthly review of all the news of the trade, pure food
legislation, modern practices, practical recipes, latest inventions, new ideas and
profitable information invaluable to every manufacturing wholesale and retail confectioner.
Note: A sample copy sent free to confectioners mentioning this ad. Confectioners’ Journal
— 627 Walnut Street, Philadelphia”
Page 138 (Ad)

CONKLIN, A.
Bought jobbers business of William H. DIBBLE 1883
Sold to George BOOSE June 2, 1893
Sold out to Charles MATT 1884
Repurchased the route 1885
Sold out to F. C. WITTMAN June 2, 1890
(Note on page 91, “WITTMAN” is spelled “WHITMAN”)
Page 69, 77

CONLEY, Peter
CONLEY BROS.
Began manufacturing candies at 15 North Clark Street April 1875 – 1877
Peter Conley ran a wagon and continued business as a jobber
A leading jobber at time of death
Business sold to George BOOSE by which time his formerly large business had gradually
decreased due to his sickness and eventual death 1893
Page 59, 103

CONRATHS, Peter
CONRATHS & THULIN jobbing business created in 1882
Soon acquired entirely by CONRATHS
Left business
Bought August FICK March 1, 1903
Still jobbing 1905
Residence: 345 East Twenty-fourth Street 1905
Page 75, 89

CONSOLIDATED CANDY COMPANY
Started at 840 West Van Buren Street 1896
See “STEVENS, George H.”
Page 111

CONSOLIDATED FIREWORKS CO.
Ad: GARDEN CITY FIREWORKS, Ripper Crackers, Torpedoes, Flags, Balloons, Lanterns, Etc.
Manufactured by: CONSOLIDATED FIREWORKS CO. OF AMERICA, 30 and 32 So. Water St. Chicago,
Chicago Branch Mngr. Sidney F. BEECH, Mgr. Write for catalog and prices”
Page 142 (Ad).

Co-Operative Flint Glass Co., Ltd.
Manufacturers of: Tablet Jars, Tin Top Jars, French Jars, Ring Jars, Toy Mugs, Individual
Salts, Cake Covers, Cake Stands, Oblongs, etc. etc. — Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania”
Page 163 (Ad)

CORNELIUS, Edward H.
Wholesale Confectioner
“Dropped into the jobbing trade on October 30” 1893
Like it so well remained at it 1905
“…is a strong opponent of short count and short weight goods and has at times taken a very
prominent part in jobbing affairs, having held the offices of sergeant at arms and
President in the local association (of Jobbing Confectioners) and first Vice President in
the National Association.
Resides at: 226 Vilas Place 1905
Page 80 (Ad), 105

CORNWELL CANDY COMPANY
Ad: “SCHRAFFT’S — A Man and A Woman Judge a man by his cigars, a woman by her
confectionery.. Refined women insist on SCHRAFFT’S chocolate bon bons. There is something
peculiarly delicate “melting,” satisfying about them. SCHRAFFT on every chocolate.
CORNWELL CANDY COMPANY, Distributors. Branch House Second & Walnut Streets, St. Louis, Mo.
Main Offices and Factory, 49 & 51 South Union Street, Chicago, Ill.”
Page 143 (Ad)

COSTELLO, P. J.
Came to Chicago and started a small candy business at 197 Michigan Street, where he made
Costello’s chocolates famous (1890’s?)
COSTELLO CHOCOLATE COMPANY moved to larger quarters at 161-165 South Jefferson Street.1900
Sold business to the AMERICAN CHOCOLATE COMPANY 1901
Died leaving wife and five children April 1903
Page 95, 117

COUMBE, Luther
Bought a wagon from George SAUMWEBER 1894
Page 109

CRATTY, Josiah
President of stock company formed under the name of M. E. PAGE Confectionery Company.
August 18, 1890
Stock company failed and went out of business August 18, 1897
Page 33

CRICKARD, Nick
Partnered with J. B. HENNIGAN in HENNIGAN & CRICKARD at 193 Water Street 1862
Assumed ownership and changed name to N. CRICKARD & CO. (no partner) 1866
Martin DAWSON bookkeeper for firm 1866
Died 1868
Page 23

CULVER, Fred Gould
City salesman for HUTCHINSON & JAMISON
Formed partnership with Frank DIBBLE as F. G. CULVER & CO.
When that dissolved, started own business April 1, 1884
Ad: “FRED GOULD CULVER, 953 Sawyer Avenue, Jobbing Confectioner” 1905
Served on Executive Committee of the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association and elected officer
Page 69,114 (Ad)

CURETON, Albert
CURETON, Mrs. Albert, first Treasurer of the Ladies Auxiliary of Chicago Jobbing
Confectioners Association when first formed March 1, 1905 (Group Photo Page 78, text 125)
Brother of William H. CURETON
Born Schnectady, New York, Feb. 7, 1851
Employed by James C. SIMM July 1863
Later employed by C. W. BRACKETT
Engaged in other pursuits 1864
Opened home-made candy business at 114 West Huron Street and started out a wagon 1870
Formed partnership with brother, William H. CURETON, called CURETON BROS. Sept. 30, 1872
Firm dissolved June 7, 1875
Started another business at 683 West Lake Street June 7, 1875
Moved to 353 West Madison Street May 1, 1877
Went out of business May 1, 1878
Employed by John Kranz as a city salesman June 1, 1878 – October 1, 1880
Purchased horse and wagon and went back into business for himself
Began manufacturing candy again at 613 West Lake Street September 1887
Moved to 128 West Lake Street October 5, 1891
Moved to 128 West Van Buren Street October 5, 1801
Moved to 559 Ogden Avenue dropping candy making and focusing only on wagon trade July 1,
1893
Employed Frank PILGRIM Fall 1888 – 1893
Sold wagon on December 1, 1895
Embarked on prize and specialty business at 967 W. Polk Street where still located in 1905
President of Confectionery Agents’ Association
An incorporator, first Vice President, and President of the Jobbing Confectioners’
Association
Organizer, First Secretary, Chairman of the Entertainment Committee, Member of the
Transportation and Finance Committees of the National Convention of the National Jobbing
Confectioners’ Association
First Recording Secretary of the Confectioners’ Agents’ Union 1880
“Albert Cureton organized an association in Cincinnati, another in Pittsburg, another in
Louisville, and delegates from each city met at the Palmer House, Chicago, on August 3, 4,
and 5, 1895, and organized a national body…” of Jobbing Confectioners. CURETON was
Secretary of the new national organization.
Ad: “Albert Cureton, Manufacturer of Prizes and Specialties in Confectioner, 967 W. Polk
St., Chicago. If you have not had my goods, a postal card will bring them, or a circular
describing my entire line. Wherever possible will be pleased to call you with samples of
prizes that are always sellers. The best line of penny prizes in the market.”
Page 8 (Ad), 37, 45, 62 (Photo), 73. 78 (Mrs. CURETON Group Photo), 93, 125

CURETON, John B.
Began jobbing “this year?” and continued until November 1, 1893
Sold business to W. M. URBANCK November 1, 1893
Died July 10, 1901
Page 53, 99
CURETON, William H.
Brother of Albert CURETON
Manufactured home-made candies June until partnering with brother, Albert CURETON –
September 30, 1872
Firm known as CURETON BROS. dissolved June 7, 1875
Remained in jobbing business until Jan.1, 1888
Running a U.S. mail route in Mammoth, Arizona 1905
Page 45

DAPLAIN, T.
Employed by Joseph DINET 1849-50
Page 11

DAVIE
DAVIE & CARR
Began manufacturing specialties at 298 North Wells Street, burned out, resumed for a few
months in 1872
Page 43

DAVIS, Robert E.
Began manufacturing at 255 South Western Avenue in 1904
Page 123

DAVIS, Stanley W.
Secretary of stock company formed under the name of M. E. PAGE Confectionery Company.
August 18, 1890
Stock company failed and went out of business August 18, 1897
Page 33

DAWSON, Martin
Born in Ireland 1845
Emigrated with parents to Chicago 1852
Bookkeeper for N. CRICKARD & Co.1866
Assumed ownership of N. CRICKARD & Co. on N. CRICKARD’S death 1868
Partnered with M. Shields in DAWSON & SHIELDS at 17 Clark Street 1868-October 9, 1871
(Fire)
DAWSON & SHIELDS employed Frank DIBBLE
Moved to 83 South Green Street 1871
229 Randolph Street 1873-1875
43 and 45 State Street until partnership dissolved 1875 – 1878
28 Lake Street 1878
211 State Street 1879 – October 1883
214 and 216 East Kinzie Street October 1883
Changed name to MARTIN DAWSON & CO. 1889
Incorporated as MARTIN DAWSON CO. and moved to 1520 State Street 1895
Onetime secretary of the National Confectioners’ Association
Page 23, 51

DEAN’S
Ask you jobber for Mentholated cough drops
Page 88 (Ad)

DEBUS, Henry
Began wholesale and manufacturing business at 85 Fifth Avenue 1893
Page 99

DEJMEK, Hynek J.
1193 South Spaulding Avenue
Began in jobbing business June 1904
Ad: “Hynek J. DEJMEK, Wholesale Confectioner, 1130 Turner Ave., Cor. 24th St”
Page 125, 178 (Ad)

DE PUE, D. S.
Began jobbing business in 1894
Page 109

DEWEY, A. J.
Began jobbing business in 1903
Ad: “A. J. DEWEY, Wholesale Jobbing Confectioner, Fine Chocolates a Specialty, Latest Penny
Goods, 2024 W. Monroe Street”
Page 123, 178 (Ad)

DEXHEIMER, George E.
Bought out jobbing business of R. E. TROWBRIDGE in September 1904
Page 125

DEYOUNG, Henry
Started in “jobbing” business with a wagon in 1869 – 1878
Sold out to O. JOOST 1878
Page 39

DIBBLE, Frank
Employed as city salesman by DAWSON & SHIELDS
Went into business for self and ran a wagon until 1882
Took charge of jobbing department of Frank FIELD & CO.
Took charge of jobbing department of SMITH & HALE 1883
On the road as a traveling salesman 1905
Page 51

DIBBLE, William H.
Began 1880
Sold out to A. CONKLIN 1883
Page 69

DICKHAUT, John L.
Purchased jobbers route from J. Merton CASE on March 13, 1884
Still in business 1905
Prominent in politics
Residence: 625 South Kedzie Avenue (1905)
Page 67, 78

DICKSON, I. F.
Former employee of M. E. PAGE & CO.
Began to manufacture candy of a fine grade at 272 Madison Street June 1, 1887
Continued in business until 1890.
Shared space with Confectioners’ and Bakers’ Supply Company at 272 Madison Street 1890
Began manufacturing as DICKSON CANDY CO. 1897
Joined Confectioners’ and Bakers’ Supply Co. while continuing candy manufacturing as
DICKSON CANDY COMPANY until 1899
Sold out to Confectioners’ and Bakers’ Supply Company 1899
Began as dealer in confectionery, confectioners’ machinery and tools under the name of I.
F. DICKSON at 100 Lake Street in 1899
Page 85, 113, 117

DIETRICH, Frank
Started in wholesale and manufacturing of confectionery January 1, 1893
Sold out 1897
Page 99

DIETZ, Edward
Jobber who sold out in 1888
Page 79

DINET, Joseph
Opened candy factory at 48 Clark Street 1846
“Dinet must have done quite a business for so small a city, for he had in his employ T.
DAPLAIN, Henry KINSON and P. KLEINTGES.”
Dropped out of the business in 1851
Page 11

DIRR, C. A.
Ad: “C. A. DIRR, Printer, 389 Ogden Avenue”
Page 135 (Ad)

DODD, Frank P.
Began jobbing in August and remained at it until 1875
Page 37

DONIAN, Samuel
Began manufacturing at 122 South Desplaines in 1903
Page 123

DOST, Theodore
Began jobbing business in 1903
Page 123

DOWST BROS. & CO
Began manufacturing confectioners’ prize goods at 24 to 30 South Clinton Street 1899
Ad: “Confectioners’ Novelties, New Goods Every Week, For Penny Goods, Prizes & Gum
Manufacturers, DOWST BROS. Co., 9, 11, & 13 Ann St., Chicago”
Page 117, 178 (Ad)

DRECHSLER, Andrew
Jobbing business corner of Milwaukee avenue and Reuben Street (in 1905 called Ashland Ave.)
1859
“…was the first man to run an independent wagon”
Page 25

DREIBUS, Anton C.
In toy business with SCHWEITZER & BEER
Successful jobber of candies until selling out to move to Omaha 1884
Went to Omaha with Michael and Jacob KOPP and formed firm of KOPP, DREIBUS & CO.
Partnership ended 1888
First Financial Secretary of the Confectioners’ Agents’ Union 1880
Page 57, 69, 73

DREIBUS, Herman
DREIBUS, Philip J.
Herman and Philip DREIBUS began in jobber business 1883
Philip DREIBUS sold out to Fred T. SEELIG March 1890
Page 77, 93

DREIBUS, John G.
Began jobbing candies in October (late 1890’s?)
Was temporary Secretary of newly formed Jobbing Confectioners’ Association
Sold out jobbing business to Frank GLEMBOW August 1, 1891
Organized DREIBUS-HEIM CO., manufacturers of confectionery, at 194 South Desplaines Street
Moved firm to larger quarters at 143 and 145 South Clinton Street 1895
Moved to present quarters (1905) 110 and 112 South Jefferson Street with floor space of
11,000 feet 1899
Specialize in chocolates and bonbons.
Ad: “DREIBUS-HEIM COMPANY, Manufacturing Confectioners, 110-112 S. Jefferson St., Chicago.
Our Specialties: (lists 10 specialties)”
Officers of company are: E. J. Brach, President; A. F. Steger, Vice-President, J. G.
Dreibus, Secretary; F. H. A. Straus, Treasurer, 1905
Page 77, 79, 100-101 (Ad)

DWYRE, Michael
In Jobbing business until he went into the grocery business from May 1866 – May 1872
Page 39

DYBALL, R. W.
Dealer in fruits and candies wholesale and retail
Started in candy business at 150 South Halsted Street 1872
Moved to 278 West Madison Street 1873
Moved to 193 West Madison Street 1879
Retired 1883
Went to Omaha and entered into business with PYCKE BROS. as PYCKE BROS & DYBALL
Page 53

EARL, T. L.
Began jobbing business in September 1888
Still engaged in business 1905
Ad: “T. L. EARL, 2060 Monroe St. Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 87, 134

ECKSTEIN
Partnered with F. W. and Louis RUECKHEIM (brothers) and became RUECKHEIM BROS. & ECKSTEIN
1899
Erected mammoth new factory at northwest corner of Peoria and Harrison 1904
Ad: “Though many seek to imitate, With style and name of close relate, The taste is what
all others lack– It’s only found in “Cracker Jack.” RUECKHEIM BROS. & ECKSTEIN Cracker
Jack and Candy Makers, Chicago, USA. A full line of staple goods, chocolates, penny goods
and pail specialties — Write for samples and prizes.”
Page 24 (Ad), 49, 51, 121, 123

EDELSTEIN, Jacob S.
Began manufacturing at 232 South Desplaines in 1904
Page 123

EDMISTON, J. R.
Began wholesale and manufacturing concern at 126 South Halsted and 248, 354 and 306 West
Madison
1892
Page 95

EGAN, M. F.
Began jobbing confectionery November 15, 1893
Has been an officer of the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association and is now a member of the
Entertainment Committee of the national convention 1905
Ad: “M.F. EGAN Wholesale dealer in Confectionery 5751 Aberdeen St.”
Page 105, 135 (Ad)

EHEIM, Louis
Began in jobbing business in May (late 1890’s?)
Sold out to William MEISTERLING March 1, 1893
Sold out to Harry L. WEISBAUM 1894
Bought back business from Harry L. WEISBAUM 1895
Page 77, 109

EISENBIS, John
Confectionery business at 90 Wells Street 1849 – 1855
Sold out to Charles BANZHAFF 1855
Page 11

ELLIAS, M.
Began manufacturing at 394 North Avenue 1899
Page 115

ELSTON, Wm.
37 Clark Street 1849
Page 11

ENGELN, Henry
Had been salesman for Albert CURETON and W. N. SHIELDS
Went into business for himself 1893
Shortly after sold out to Albert E. BRUGGEMEYER
Page 105

ENGLERT, Charles G.
Bought out jobber business from Christian F. THAUER November 16, 1893
Member of the Entertainment Committee of the National Jobbing Confectioners’ Association
convention 1905
Prominent in social affairs
Ad: “CHARLES G. ENGLERT Jobbing Confectioner 217 Wells St.”
Resides at: 217 Wells Street 1905
Page 77, 105, 135 (Ad)

ENRIGHT, John W.
FREDERICKSON & ENRIGHT
With partner Charles FREDERICKSON began manufacturing at 15 North Clark Street
Next year FREDERICKSON withdrew from firm
ENRIGHT dropped manufacturing and went into jobbing business and still is in 1905
Ad: “J. W. ENRIGHT 285 N. Lincoln St. Wholesale Confectioners”
Page 53, 182 (Ad)

EVANS, George O.
Bought out Det Stevens in jobbing business upon his death in 1889
Sold jobbing business to John PETERSEN September 1899
Page 87, 117

EYRE, Robert T.
Began jobbing business in June 1894
Sold out business 1900
Went into jobbing business in Sterling, Illinois 1900 where still in business 1905
Page 109
FANTER, E.
Began in jobbing business 1894
Sergeant at Arms of Jobbing Confectionery Association
Page 111

FARLEY, J. K.
Began J. K. FARLEY MFG. CO. as a wholesale and manufacturing concern at 223 Michigan Street
November 15, 1891
Moved to 161 South Jefferson where they did large wagon trade in 1892
Moved to 102 and 106 Indiana Street 1896
Moved to larger and more commodious quarters at 118 to 130 East Superior Street 1901
Plant at 104 East Indiana absorbed by NATIONAL CANDY COMPANY in 1903
Now known as the J. K. FARLEY FACTORY of the NATIONAL CANDY COMPANY 1905
Page 95, 97, 121

FAYETTE, Albert Sr.
FAYETTE, Mrs. A. (Group Photo of Ladies Auxiliary of Chicago Jobbing Confectioners
Association Page 78)
FAYETTE, Charles and Albert Jr. (Sons)
Born Albany, Wisconsin 1849
Soldier in Civil War
Employed by L. F. HAEHNLEN as city saleman from end of War until January 1, 1869
Went into business for himself 1869
First President of Confectionery Agents’ Union
First President of the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association and incorporator
First Vice President of National Association
Treasurer of Chicago Association for several years
Died 1899
Succeeded by sons, Charles F. and Albert who are still in business (in 1905) and, “like
their father take an interest in association matters.”
Page 26 (Photo), 39, 73, 78 (Mrs. A. Photo), Page 93

FAYETTE, Albert Jr.
219 Oakley Blvd.
Ad: “GIBSON, SYKES and FOWLER, McVICKER’S THEATRE BLDG. “The Five “Live Wires” of the
Jobbing Confectioners of Chicago” Give us your orders for standard and up to date
confections” (each of the five gentlemen are identified by name and address: A. THOMPSON
7041 Union Ave., H. G. GUEST 11919 S. Halsted St., Albert FAYETTE 219 Oakley Blvd., H. H.
KINNE, 248 S. St. Louis Ave., Wm. WEIS, 43 Surrey Ct.)
Page 102 (Ad/Photo of “The Five “Live Wires””)

FAYETTE, Charles E. (son of FAYETTE, Albert Sr.)
(Note: Middle initial is F. on page 39 and E. in Ad on page 159)
Ad: “C. E. FAYETTE 962 W. Madison St. Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 39, 159 (Ad)

FERGUSON, George W.
Bought out jobbing business of Henry HERSCHENROEDER on Oct. 12, 1887
Still in jobbing business 1905
Member of entertainment committee of the convention (Jobbing Confectioners’ Association)
Resides at 3619 South Seeley Avenue 1905
Page 83, 85

FERNALD, Paul
Partnered with RUECKHEIM & BRO. 1898
Retired 1899
Page 51

FERNEKES, J.
FERNEKES, D. J.
J. FERNEKES & SON
Pioneer Manufacturing Confectioners
290 East Water Street
Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Page 72 (Ad)

FERNEOUGH, Frank
Employed by R. J. CAMPBELL as city salesman for business at corner of Lake and Paulina
Streets (before 1875)
Bought out R. J. CAMPBELL upon the latter’s death in 1876 and continued until 1894
Went into another line of business
Page 37, 53

FERRY, Charles S.
167 Lake Street 1846
Short-lived in business, lasting less than a year
Page 11

FESSENDEN, H. P.
Began jobbing business in 1894
Sold out in 1896
Page 107

FICK, F. August
Began jobbing business 1894
Was a jobber of candies from November 1889 – March 1, 1903
Sold out to Peter CONTRATHS and retired March 1, 1903
Page 75, 89, 109

FIELD, C. N.
Quit jobbing bakery goods, which he’d done for several years, to try jobbing candies
June1 1894
1229 Thirteenth Street
Sold out to J. A. BILHARZ August 1, 1900
Page 109, 117

FIELD, Frank
Came to Chicago from Peoria in 1878
Partnered with B. F. SMITH and Herbert WILLEY in opening bakery and candy factory under
name of FRANK FIELD & CO at 108 West Washington Street .
Moved to 203 East Van Buren Street, corner of Franklin Street dropping bakery business 1880
Employed Frank Dibble after 1882
Company went into hands of a receiver and sold to SMITH & HALE 1883
Went to St. Louis as foreman for O. H. PECKHAM & CO.
Remained in that position until death about 1895
Page 51, 63, 65

FINLEY, William (“Buffalo Bill”)
“one of the noted men among jobbers…has adopted a far western style of dress and manner of
wearing his hair and beard, and on account of his odd ways, has a fair trade”
Began jobbers trade in late 1880’s
Page 81

FISH, Robert H.
Started as manufacturer of candies at 275 Randolph Street 1864
Moved to 257 W. Randolph May 1, 1865
Moved to 325 W. Randolph where he carried on both a wholesale and retail trade and
manufactured ice cream for the trade 1867
Employed Lawrence E. LENT from Spring 1865 to May 1, 1868
Purchased building at southeast corner of Aberdeen and Madison streets Fall 1870
Employed M. L. ROBERTS as jobber
New Building at 304 Madison September 1871 – May 1, 1879
Moved to 530 West Madison Street 1879 – 1883
New building at 528 Madison Street 1883
“During his connection with the trade, Mr. Fish was known as a good business man and
manufacturer of fine goods. He was one of the first manufacturers in the trade to put
wagons on the street and at one time had quite a large and profitable trade.”
Retired in 1898
Age 76 in 1905
Page 18 (Photo), 33, 35, 39, 57

FLESHER, E. R.
Ad: “E. R. FLESHER, 6851 Yale Ave., Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 155 (Ad)

FOWLER & RORABACK
Confectionery Manufacturers
Succeeded by FOWLER & STEIN at 102 West Adams in 1903
FOWLER & STEIN succeeded by ARTHUR STEIN & CO. at 102 and 104 West Adams Street 1904
Page 121, 123

FOX, George
Bought out jobbing business of F. BENRIGHTER at 4730 State Street 1902
Ad: ” GEO. FOX 4730 State St. Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 121, 159 (Ad)

FRANK, George
Partners with Albert BUNTE as ALBERT BUNTE & CO. at southeast corner of Fifth Avenue and
Jackson Street 1885
Changed name to BUNTE, FRANK & CO. and moved factory to La Salle and Ontario Streets
Dissolved partnership and changed name to GEORGE FRANK & CO. (“still doing business at the
old stand) 1886 – 1905
“On October 8, 1890, George Frank called a meting of manufacturers and jobbers at 106
Randolph Street and this meeting was well attended. Another organization here sprang into
existence called the Confectionery Salesman’s Association, which was afterwards
incorporated as the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association on March 10, 1901.”
Ad: Includes photo of medallions called “Purity” and “Excellence”, ink drawing of FRANK CO.
Building, magnet “trademark” and text that reads: GEORGE FRANK & CO. Manufacturing
Confectioners, We manufacture a full line of Staple, and finest line of Penny Goods in
Chicago. Ask for Magnet brand — It means increased trade for you. Do not fail to put in
a stock of Estrella chocolates, bitter sweets, pure fruit flavors, 129-131 La Salle Ave.,
Chicago, Illinois.”
Page 55, 57, 93, 111, 118 (Ad)

FRANKENTHAL, E.
A dealer in cigars and tobacco at 62 Clark Street where he employed Charles BANZHAFF as a
clerk 1852
Page 11

FREDERICKSON, Charles
FREDERICKSON & ENRIGHT
With partner John W. ENRIGHT began manufacturing at 15 North Clark Street late 1870’s
Next year FREDERICKSON withdrew from firm
ENRIGHT dropped manufacturing and went into jobbing business and still is in 1905
Page 53

FREIDMAN, L
(See also L. FRIEDMAN as spelled in Ad on page 182)
Began jobbing candies Sept 1, 1891
Still in business 1905
Ad: “L. FRIEDMAN 313 N. Robey St. Wholesale Confectioner”
Resides at: 313 North Robey Street
Page 95, 182 (Ad)

FREITAG, Carl
Cook County constable
Jobber for confectionery business for several years (perhaps late 1800’s?)
Eventually devoted his entire time to politics
Page 63

FRIEDMAN, L
(See also L. FREIDMAN as spelled on page 95)
Began jobbing candies Sept 1, 1891
Still in business 1905
Ad: “L. FRIEDMAN 313 N. Robey St. Wholesale Confectioner”
Resides at: 313 North Robey Street
Page 95, 182 (Ad)

FRIEDMAN, S. L.
Having been a manufacturer, began jobbing candies in September 1893
S. L. FRIEDMAN & CO. began manufacturing at 130 Orleans in 1902
Is again jobbing 1905
Resides at 185 North Halsted Street
Page 105, 119

FRITSCH
FRITSCH & WILLIAMS
209 North Wells Street
Page 67

FRYE
FRYE, KLEINBECK AND BAUM
195 Michigan Avenue
One of the new houses “this year” (1890’s?)
Page 95

FRYE, George V.
FRYE, J. R.
Began business under the name of FRYE CARAMEL COMPANY at 207 Illinois Street 1890
Sold plant “under execution” to OATMAN BROTHERS Janaury 18, 1897
“There was considerable litigation over the matter and pending a decision the plant was
closed down. The parties who were interested in the controversy and who were stockholders
were George V. FRYE, E. J. OATMAN, F. G. OATMAN, Frederick BROWNING and George B. SCRIPPS.
Began FRYE CONFECTIONERY COMPANY at 1818 East Illinois Street where they manufactured
“Eureka” and “Perfection” brands of caramel paste February 1897
J. R. FRYE sold firm and name changed to GEORGE V. FRYE 1898
Firm name changed to J. R. FRYE 1899
Firm name changed back to GEORGE V. FRYE 1900
George now running a business in Iowa 1905
Page 89, 91

GADOW, William
Milwaukee, Wisconsin
First Vice President of newly formed National Jobbing Confectioners’ Association August
1895
Page 93

GAESSWITZ, George
Began jobbing business at 833 North Mozart Street in September 1, 1903
Page 123

GALLNICK, A. J.
Started jobbing business 1900
Page 119

GARDEN CITY FIREWORKS
Ad: GARDEN CITY FIREWORKS, Ripper Crackers, Torpedoes, Flags, Balloons, Lanterns, Etc.
Manufactured by: CONSOLIDATED FIREWORKS CO. OF AMERICA, 30 and 32 So. Water St. Chicago,
Chicago Branch Mngr. Sidney F. BEECH, Mgr. Write for catalog and prices”
Page 142 (Ad).

GARDEN CITY POPCORN WORKS
Ad: “Greene & Son, 46 State Street, Chicago, The Oldest Popcorn House in the World, POP
CORN BRICKS and WANT-A-BITE our New Confection, Salted Peanuts in Bulk or Packages, Give us
a Call — Opp. Masonic Temple”
Page 80 (Ad)

GARRITY, P. L.
Partnered with Edward SCANLAN in “The Great Western Candy Factory” at 172 North Wells
Street with retail outlet at 18 Clark Street 1861
Moved to 47 State Street 1864-1866 (partnership dissolved)
Moved to 39 Randolph Street where he employed M. L. BARRETT as a bookkeeper 1866
Moved to 33 and 35 River Street 1869 (burned out in fire)
Opened store at 100 Van Buren Street 1874-1876
Moved to 200 Clark Street 1876
Partnered again with Edward SCANLAN at 23 Lake Street 1879-1880
Died September 25, 1900
Page 17, 19

GARWOOD, William C.
Wm. C. GARWOOD business was renamed W. C. GARWOOD & CO. 1896
Moved from 154 lake to 24 Wabash Avenue 1896
“Wm. C. GARWOOD was a druggist in Evanston, who carried a side line of candies. He started
in to make a few candies for his own trade and was so successful that he finally abandoned
the drug business entirely.”
Bought out by the GARWOOD CANDY CO. at 135 Chicago Avenue in 1901
Page 111, 119

GAVIN, E. F.
Employed by M. SHIELDS
Partnered with N. S. WOOD, an actor, to begin manufacturing candy at 145 South Clinton
Street under the firm name of E. F. GAVIN & COMPANY May 1, 1892
Business failed February 22, 1893
Page 95

GEFFERT ROOFING COMPANY
Ad: “GEFFERT ROOFING COMPANY, Not Incorporated, Offices: 1056-1058 W. Harrison Street,
Chicago, Illinois. Felt, Tar, Composition, and Gravel Roofing. Estimates promptly
furnished.”
Page 186 (Ad)

GEORG, Adolph
(Henry and William, brothers)
Born in Germany 1844 to candy making family
Arrived in Milwaukee 1852 with brothers Henry and William
Arrived in Chicago February 1859
Enlisted in Union Army during Civil War April 1861 – 1864
Employed by SANFORD near the Briggs House 1864
Moved with SANFORD & CO. to new steam powered factory and store “the largest establishment
up to that time which had been erected for candy-making purposes.”
Employed by CHESTED at 31 North Clark Street “…thinking he could improve himself much more
advantageously in a smaller place than in a factory running with steam power. Finally Mr.
Georg thought that trading was better than working at the manufacturing business, so he
bought himself a horse and wagon to sell candy 1866
Purchased bakery business at 207 North Wells Street intending to refit it into a candy shop
but plans were ruined by the Great Fire of October 9, 1871
Opened confectionery store at North Side Turner Hall 1873 – 1895
Sold jobbing business to Geo. G. MERRILL 1873
Besides managing Turner Hall, imported German wines at 164 Randolph Street
Ad: “ADOLPH GEORG, Importer of Rhine & Moselle Wines, WEIN-STUBE “ZUM BINGER-LOCH.” 164 E.
Randolph St. Chicago, Illinois”
Page 37, 112 (Photo), 114 (Ad)

GEORG, Henry
(See Adolph GEORG)

GEORG, William
(See Adolph GEORG)

GEORGE
GEORGE & CHARLES
Succeeded to business of the TORMOEHLEN & BROS. moving it to 108 and 110 West Adams Stree
Sold out to The NATIONAL CANDY CO.
Page 43

GERBERICH, A. L.
(See also brothers, C. F. and F. J. GERBERICH)
Ad: “A. L. GERBERICH, 2081 W. Madison St. Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 113, 178 (Ad)

GERBERICH, C. F.
(See also brothers F. J. and A. L. GERBERICH)
Ad: “C. F. GERBERICH, 2081 W. Madison Street, Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 80 (Ad), 113

GERBERICH, F. J.
(Brother of C. F. and A. L. GERBERICH)
Began successful jobbing business April 1896
“With his brothers C. J. (Note: called C. F. GERBERICH on page 80 Ad) and A. L., they have
a large city and country trade.”
Ad: “F. J. GERBERICH, 1996 Wilcox Ave. Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 113, 159 (Ad)

GERTENRICH, John
Partnered with Ernest A. Morris and Theodore GOTTMANN, all former employees of M. SHIELDS &
CO. in new firm of E. A. MORRIS & CO. at 194 South Clinton Street March 25, 1887
Moved to 85 West Jackson Street 1888
Retired from firm and started new wholesale and manufacturing business at 44 South
Jefferson Street 1893
Moved to 85 West Jackson Street 1895
Moved to 248 Jackson Blvd. 1901
Business failed April 10, 1905
Page 83, 99

GIACHINI, M. S.
229 South Sangamon Street.
Ad:” M. S. GIACHINI, Leader in the Manufacture of Hand Made Chocolate Creams, Maker of the
Original Famous Venetian Chocolate Creams, Specialties, New Location 229 S. Sangamon St.,
Chicago”
Page 49 (Ad)

GICHINI, S.
Began manufacturing at 162 West Harrison 1900
Page 117

GLASSNER, George
Opened Confectionery business at 51 Lake Street 1849
Moved to 56 Lake Street 1854
Retired 1855
Page 11, 13

GLEMBOW, Frank
Bought route from J. G. DREIBUS (early 1890’s?)
Sold out jobbing business to A. PAPPENTHEIN 1894
Ran route until he went into sausage manufacturing 1903
Page 91, 107

GLENZ, Anton
Began jobbing business 1898
Still in business 1905
Mrs. A. GLENZ was member of Ladies’ Auxiliary of the Chicago Jobbing Confectioners’
Association when first formed March 1, 1905
Page 115, 125

GOBEL
BUGLER & GOBEL
Began manufacturing at 56 North Jefferson in 1902
Page 119

GOELITZ, Adolphe
GOELITZ, Gustava
GOELITZ, Herman
KELLEY & GOELITZ began manufacturing at 55 South Desplaines in 1904
Ad: (Two pages on yellow heavy paper, with red and black type):
THE GOELITZ CONFECTIONERY CO., Adolph Goelitz, President; Gustava Goelitz, Vice Pres; E. F.
Kelley, Secy & Treas., Herman Goelitz, Gen. Manager; Factories at Chicago and Cincinnati,
“None so Good” (trademark), “Butter Sweets” (trademark), “From ocean to ocean they shine
supreme” Photo of open lidded box with phot of young girl with hand on chin “Our Little
Butter Miss.” Page 2 of Add includes list of candies and prices for each.
Page 112-113 (2-page Ad), 123

GOETZ, George
Jobber who sold out in 1887
Page 79

GOLDMAN
WINTER & GOLDMAN
124 Dearborn Street
Started business 1878?
Page 51

GOLDSCHMITT, Julius
Began jobbing business 1899
Page 117

GOLDSTEIN, Joseph
Bought out S. Inlander’s jobbing business at 5010 Ashland Avenue on October 1, 1897
Ad: “Joseph GOLDSTEIN Jobbing Confectioner 5203 Ashland Avenue” 1905
Page 85, 113. 178 (Ad)

GORDON, Julius
Began selling good on foot to stores and the next year got a horse and wagon
In business until an inmate of hospitals for several months before dying
Business continued by Louis SCHAFER, who bought it out December 1, 1901
Page 65, 119

GORDON, Philip
Ad:”PHILIP GORDON, 319 W. 14th Street, Jobbing Confectioner, Telephone Canal 6102″
Ad: “Ph. GORDON 476 Union Street Jobbing Confectioner”
Page 114 (Ad), 170 (Ad)

GOTTMANN, Theodore
Partnered with Ernest A. Morris and Theodore GOTTMANN, all former employees of M. SHIELDS &
CO. in new firm of E. A. MORRIS & CO. at 194 South Clinton Street March 25, 1887
Moved to 85 West Jackson Street 1888
Changed firm name to MORRIS & GOTTMAN 1894
Moved to 158 West Jackson Street
Morris sold interest to Martin KRETCHMER and firm changed name to GOTTMANN & KRETCHMER at
158 West Jackson Street 1903-1904
Ad: “158 W. Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, Illinois, is where the celebrated Surinam
Chocolates are manufactured. They are delicious “bitter sweet” and a big seller. A full
line of Novelties in new penny goods always on hand. GOTTMAN & KRETCHMER”
Page 40 (Ad), 83, 123

GOULD, Edward
Son of W. GOULD
Succeeded father in candy and popcorn business at 10 South Paulina Street 1885
Page 41

GOULD, W.
Father of Edward GOULD
Started in homemade candy and popcorn business at 141 South Jefferson Street
Moved to 148 South Water Street 1873
Son Edward succeeded him moving to 10 South Paulina Street
Retired by ill health 1885
Page 41

GOYKE, Julius M.
Having been employed in candy business previously started own business in June 1893
Built up a good trade during the short time he was in business
Page 103

GREEN, Frank
GREEN & PETERSON
Manufactured candies at 206 South Desplaines Street (early 1890’s?)
Did not remain in business long.
Is now a jobber 1905
Ad: “Frank GREEN Jobbing Confectioner, 125 Melrose Street”
Page 97, 163 (Ad)

GREENE & SON
GARDEN CITY POPCORN WORKS
46 State Street, Chicago
The Oldest Popcorn House in the World
POP CORN BRICKS and WANT-A-BITE our New Confection
Page 80 (Ad)

GREENFIELD. E.
Ad: “E. GREENFIELD’S SON & Co., New York, Sole Manufacturers of Chocolate Sponge,
Established 1848″
Hired John C. Neemes to be their Chicago Agent February 1897
Page 31, 84 (Ad)

GREIB, F. W.
Began jobbing business 1894
Page 109

GROTH, G. A.
Bought out the jobbing business of William LEINDECKER September 1, 1894
“Has been strictly in the business ever since” 1905
Page 109

GROVE, A. M.
Sold out candy manufacturing business to John R. MULVEY in January 1892
Page 97

The GROVE CO.
Salem, Ohio
Ad: “Include in your next order from you jobber a box of Yellow Kid, Jumbo Trix and Hully
Gee Chewing Gum, Manufactured by The Grove Co., Salem Ohio”
Page 106 (Ad)

GUARINIAN, V. G.
Emigrated from Constantinople, Turkey to Chicago May 1, 1892
Partnered with V. MUGGERDITIAN to manufacture Fig paste and other Turkish Candies.
“Started in one small room 20 X 40 Feet at 207 South Canal Street and in March 1896 was
incorporated as the ORIENTAL MANUFACTURING CO.”
Moved to 249 South Jefferson Street 1897
Moved to 206 Illinois Street 1899
Moved to 198 and 200 South Center Avenue with plant of 12,000 square feet 1902
Ad: “V. G. GURINIAN, Pres. And Treas.; A. B. GURINIAN, Secy, THE ORIENTAL MANUFACTURING
CO., Established 1889, CONFECTIONERS, Makers of Specialties (12 listed) Send for samples
and quotations. 198-200 South Center Avenue, Chicago.”
Page 99, 167 (Ad)

GUEST, H. E.
Started in business in October 1894
Has been very successful.
Manufacturer as well as a jobber
At one time member of the firm GUEST & SULLIVAN CANDY CO. which began manufacturing at
11951 South Halsted in 1903
Ad: “GIBSON, SYKES and FOWLER, McVICKER’S THEATRE BLDG. “The Five “Live Wires” of the
Jobbing Confectioners of Chicago” Give us your orders for standard and up to date
confections” (each of the five gentlemen are identified by name and address: A. THOMPSON
7041 Union Ave., H. G. GUEST 11919 S. Halsted St., Albert FAYETTE 219 Oakley Blvd., H. H.
KINNE, 248 S. St. Louis Ave., Wm. WEIS, 43 Surrey Ct.)
Page 102 (Ad/Photo of “The Five “Live Wires””), 107, 121

GUNNING, J. K.
Sold out jobbing business to Fred J. PLATTNER 1894
Page 107

GUNTHER, Charles Frederick
Born Wildberg, Wurtemburg, Germany March 6, 1837
Emigrated with parents to Pennsylvania when five years old 1842
Moved from Pennsylvania to Peru, Illinois, 1850
At age of 14 employed as a clerk in a country store and later went to work in a drug store
“…where he gained quite an insight into the art of pharmacy.”
Became manager of the post office at Peru, Illinois,
Spent five years employed by banking house
Moved to Memphis, Tennesee, and employed by local ice dealer in 1860
Upon outbreak of Civil War employed as purchasing agent and purser of the steamer “Rose
Douglas”
in Confederate Service, captured when blockaded in Arkansas River by Federal gunboats
in Van Buren, Ark. “…he was exhanged and making his way north he finally reached Peru.”
“His life while acting in this capacity was anything but peaceful and his adventures were
many.”
Returned to Peoria where he was employed by banking house
Joined C. W. SANFORD, Chicago confectioner, as traveling salesman visiting the principal
cities of the South as well as those in Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky and
West Virginia.” Fall 1863
“He next entered the employ of a wholesale grocery house, but the line was not to his taste
and he entered the employ of a New York confectionery house, which he represented in the
New England, Middle and Western states. In the meantime, Mr. Gunther had traveled
extensively in Europe and Asia and had a knowledge of how these people prepared confections
and, combined with what he learned of the business while representing manufacturers of
confectionery on the road, made him finally decide to enter business on his account.”
Opened Factory and store at 125 Clark Street Fall 1868 – October 8, 1871 (Fire)
Originated and introduced caramels, “which have been a staple product of all factories ever
since.”
After Great Fire destroyed factory and store, leaving him with almost no resources,
reopened factory/store at 78 Madison under McVicker’s Theater 1871 – 1886
Erected building at 212 State Street “which is a model both as retail store and factory”
1886
“…(his) name as a manufacturer of candies, is known from one end of the country to the
other.”
Page 27, 29, 128 (Photo)
GURINIAN, A. B.
(See also GUARINIAN, V. G. and the ORIENTAL MANUFACTURING CO.)
Emigrated from Constantinople, Turkey to Chicago May 1, 1892
Partnered with V. MUGGERDITIAN to manufacture Fig paste and other Turkish Candies.
“Started in one small room 20 X 40 Feet at 207 South Canal Street and in March 1896 was
incorporated as the ORIENTAL MANUFACTURING CO.”
Moved to 249 South Jefferson Street 1897
Moved to 206 Illinois Street 1899
Moved to 198 and 200 South Center Avenue with plant of 12,000 square feet 1902
Ad: “V. G. GURINIAN, Pres. and Treas.; A. B. GURINIAN, Secy, THE ORIENTAL MANUFACTURING
CO., Established 1889, CONFECTIONERS, Makers of Specialties (12 listed) Send for samples
and quotations. 198-200 South Center Avenue, Chicago.”
Page 99, 167 (Ad)

GURINIAN, V. G.
(Note spelled GUARINIAN on page 99)
Emigrated from Constantinople, Turkey to Chicago May 1, 1892
Partnered with V. MUGGERDITIAN to manufacture Fig paste and other Turkish Candies.
“Started in one small room 20 X 40 Feet at 207 South Canal Street and in March 1896 was
incorporated as the ORIENTAL MANUFACTURING CO.”
Moved to 249 South Jefferson Street 1897
Moved to 206 Illinois Street 1899
Moved to 198 and 200 South Center Avenue with plant of 12,000 square feet 1902
Ad: “V. G. GURINIAN, Pres. And Treas.; A. B. GURINIAN, Secy, THE ORIENTAL MANUFACTURING
CO., Established 1889, CONFECTIONERS, Makers of Specialties (12 listed) Send for samples
and quotations. 198-200 South Center Avenue, Chicago.”
Page 99, 167 (Ad)

HABICHT BRAUN & CO.
Ad: “New York – Chicago, HABICHT BRAUN & CO, Importers, Manufacturers and Dealers in Raw
Material, Everything to Manufacture Good Candies”
Page 96

HABIG, John
Began jobbing business 1894
Page 109

HAEHNLEN, Louis F.
Wholesale and Retail business at 92 West Randolph Street 1865-70
Employed Albert FAYETTE as city salesman until January 1, 1869
114 West Madison Street, 1870
Manufacturing and Wholesale at 116 West Madison Street 1872
42 South Water Street 1874
Partnered with Wm. CHALMERS in L. F. HAEHNLEN & CO. 1876
Partnered with Wm. R. Stevens and moved to 83 Michigan Ave. 1877
Partnered with Geo. H. BROOKS in BROOKS & HAEHNLEN corner of Michigan Ave. and Lake Street
1879
Moved to 9, 11,13 and 15 River Street 1882
Retired 1885
Began own business at Northeast corner of Madison and Canal Streets 1855
Moved plant to Belvidere, Illinois and then to 317 South Seventh Street, St. Louis, Mo.
Where still in business 1905
Page 17, 21, 39

HAGADORN, Charles
Began jobbing (late 1880’s?) and sold out in 1895
Page 89

HAGEMEISTER, William
Bought jobbers route of H. RECHTMEYER Feb. 3, 1886
Sold out to George H. SUNDERLAGE August 1891
Purchased a wagon from A. B. BURNHAM February 1, 1905
Still in jobbing business 1905
Resides: 257 Hirsch Street
Page 81, 83, 87, 95

HAGLEY’S
Ad: “HAGLEY’S Fine Chocolates — Chocolate Opera Cream Bar, 63 and 65 S. Deplaines Street,
Chicago”
(See also William HAGLEY — could be same person?)
Page 123, 147 (Ad)

HAGLEY, William
Began manufacturing at 175 South Desplaines in 1904
(See also Ad for “HAGLEY’S” – could be same person?)
Page 123, 147 (Ad)

HAINES, Thomas S.
Began jobbing business 1894
Page 109

HALE
SMITH & HALE
Page 51

HAMILTON, William C.
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania
First Treasurer of newly formed National Jobbing Confectioners’ Association August 1895
Page 93

HAMMER, Louis
Jobbing business at 112 North Wells Street in February until October 9, 1871 (the Big Fire)
Did not resume business after being burned out
Page 41

HAMMIL, Charles H.
In charge of manufacturing branch of GEORGE MILLER & SON, Philadelphia, that they opened at
corner of Van Buren and Franklin Streets March 1, 1892.
Discontinued Branch January 1, 1894
Page 97

HANSEN, Hans
Sold jobbing business to Louis LINDBERG January 20, 1900
Page 117

HANSEN, Jacob C.
(Note: spelled HANSON on Page 109)
Succeeded Peter KRUGER in the jobbing business June 1 1894
Still in business 1905
Ad: “J. HANSEN 717 Jefferson St. Jobbing Confectioner”
Page 109, 142 (Ad)

HANSON, Jacob C.
(Note: spelled HANSEN in Ad on page 142)
Succeeded Peter KRUGER in the jobbing business June 1 1894
Still in business 1905
Ad: “J. HANSEN 717 Jefferson St. Jobbing Confectioner”
Page 109, 142 (Ad)

HARRINGTON, Charles H.
Began wholesale and manufacturing concern at 184 Indiana Street 1892
Changed firm name to HARRINGTON & CO. March 1, 1893
“They had two wagons attending to city trade.”
Sold wagons to F. C. PARMAN and L. H. THOMAS and went out of business August 12, 1893
Page 59, 95, 97, 99

HATHAWAY, J. Harvey
Started jobbing, but was a transient selling to John B. BEATTIE (page 105 November 1, page
99 December 1) 1893
Page 99, 105

HATHAWAY, Thomas H. E.
Started in jobbing business on Sept 15, 1891
Still in business 1905
Ad: “T. H. E. HATHAWAY Dealer in high grade Penny Goods and Chocolates 410 N. Clark St”
Resides at: 410 North Clark Street 1905
Page 95. 135 (Ad)

HAWKES, George
Bought out jobbers’ route from F. F. BOLGER May 12, 1887
Sold out to Henry SCHAEFER May 1, 1890
Now dealing in grocers’ sundries 1905
Page 75, 85

HAWLEY
Describing the evolution of the candy trade from the mid 1850’s to 1905, “In consequence
there was little money spent for candies then in proportion to what there was later on,
when the quality was improved. This was not brought about by either the manufacturer or
retailer, but by the jobber, who gradually dropped out the sticky compounds and began
pushing such goods as HAWLEY’S Chocolate Drops, which by the way, was the first really good
chocolate drop to be put on the market…Where HAWLEY at first and LOWNEY for a brief time,
later on, had the reputation of making the finest goods on the market, they fast lost their
prestige as far superior goods are to-day placed on the market by any number of
manufacturers.
Page 127

HAWLEY
THORP, HAWLEY & CO.
Ad: “The 400 Marshmallows, The kind that tell — Made only by THORP, HAWLEY & CO.”
Page 186 (Ad)

HAWLEY & HOOPS
New York
“A No. !” Trademark
Page 64 (Ad)

HAYNES, Henry W.
Sold out and went into jobbing business in Kansas City, Kansas 1889
Page 83

HAYWARD
HAYWORD-WINDSOR Co. a wholesale and manufacturing concern established at 161 South Canal
Street on September 1, 1893
Business failed August 24, 1904
Page 95, 99

HEALD, Capt. J.
“In 1812, the war broke out with England and as the Indian tripes had allied themselves
with the English and as Chicago was an exposed position, the authorities at Detroit ordered
the commander of the Fort (note: Fort Chicago built at the mouth of the Chicago River in
1804), Captain J. Heald, to abandon the post and proceed with his troops to Ft. Wayne.”
Page 9

HELLMANN, Joseph B.
Came from Baltimore to Chicago in 1883
Left grocery business to go into jobbing confectionery business 1885
Purchased jobbers route from J. Merton CASE October 1885 and still in business 1905
Jobbing Manufacturer
Member of committee appointed by Jobbing Confectioners’ Association to explore creation of
national organization 1894
2nd Secretary, Vice-President, President and Chairman Executive Committee Chicago Jobbing
Confectioners’ Association
Delegate to the first convention to form the National Association in 1895 and has been
elected as a delegate several times since
Second Vice President of the National Jobbing Confectioners’ Association, “…has been
prominently identified with the organization from the start, is an ex-president, has served
on many important committees, has bee delegate to several conventions and is chairman of
the Bade Committee for convention. He is well known by his sobriquet, “Uncle Joe.” 1905
HELLMAN, Mrs. Joseph B., first Secretary, Ladies Auxiliary of Chicago Jobbing
Confectioners Association when first formed March 1, 1905(Group Photo Page 78, text 125)
Ad: “This is Uncle Joe — the Candy Man. JOSEPH B. HELLMAN, Jobbing Confectioner, Fine
Chocolates, Bon Bons, and Penny goods a Specialty. 44 Lexington Street – Chicago, Ill.”
Resides at 44 Lexington Street
Page 16 (Photo/Ad), 38 (Photo), 79, 67, 78 (Mrs. HELLMANN Group Photo), 93, 125. 187

HENNIGAN, J. B.
Foreman of O. PAGE & CO. candy factory in the alley at the rear of McVicker’s Theater
Bought out O. PAGE & CO. and moved to 193 Water Street 1858
Partnered with Nick Crickard in HENNIGAN & CRICKARD 1862
Retired 1866
Page 23

HERSCHENROEDER, Henry
Entered the jobbing field in October (late 1880’s)
Sold out to George W. FERGUSON on October 12, 1887
Page 83, 85

HESS BROS.
Manufactured candy on West Randolph Street 1857
Bought out factory of C. H. MEYER on West Randolph Street near Canal 1858
Ad: “HESS Brothers Inc., Fine Candies and Chocolates, 502 to 516 West 30th Street, New York,
USA”
Page 23, 89 (Ad)

HETH, J. P.
Began manufacturing candy at 79 Randolph Street 1851
Moved to Clinton near Madison Street 1854
Employed Edward SCANLAN as a clerk 1854
Page 11, 13, 17

HIBBEN, Samuel E. (Mrs.)
Daughter of John C. NEEMES
Page 31

HICKMAN, Francis W.
(SASSAMAN & HICKMAN
Partnered with Charles SASSAMAN in SASSAMAN & HICKMAN at 47 Randolph Street Manufacturing
1854
Carried a line of confectionery tools
63 Randolph Street 1858
Sold interest to Geo. H. Brooks 1859
In business by himself at 178 State Street 1858-1861
Went out of business 1861
Page 13, 23

HILDEBRANDT, Gust
Began jobbing confectionery in 1894
Sold out to W. D. CARLISLE 1894
Page 107

HILKER, Henry
Began jobbing “at this time” (late 1890’s?)
Later in charge of jobbing department of ALBERT BUNTE & CO.
In charge of jobbing department of BUNTE, FRANK & CO.
Went back into jobbing business where still works 1905
Page 75, 77

HINZ, Martin
Began jobbing business 1900
Ad: “Martin HINZ 32 Poe St. Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 119, 135 (Ad)

HOECKZEMA, O.
Started out with a wagon (as a “jobber”) in the Fall of 1869
Per Page 125, started jobbing business in May 1871
Retired on selling out to F.F. KRAUSE 1904
Page 39, 125

HOFFMAN
Partnered with Lawrence E. LENT 799 West Madison Street (dissolved same year) 1879
Page 39

HOFFMAN, Charles Sr.
Began jobbing candies (late 1880’s?) and remained at it until May 1905 when he retired from
business
Page 89

HOFFMAN, Charles
197 East Fullerton Avenue
Bought out jobbing business of E. KLEIN April 10, 1905
Ad: “Chas. HOFFMAN 203 E. Fullerton Ave. Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 79, 125, 182 (Ad)

HOFFMAN, Frederick
Began jobbing early in 1889
Sold out to J. E. PARMAN Sept. 1, 1895
Went into manufacturing business September 1895
Manufacturing as F. HOFFMAN & CO. at 147 Illinois in 1904
Junior member of WILLIAMS & HOFFMAN, 185 Ontario Street 1905
Ad: “WILLIAMS & HOFFMAN, Manufacturing Confectioners, 85-87 Ontario Street, Phone North
1950 – Chicago, Specialties in Marshmallow and Cream Goods”
Page 89, 109, 114 (Ad), 123

HOLMGREN, Warner
Ad: ” Warner HOLMGREN, 1406 Irving Park Blvd Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 182 (Ad)

HOMEYER, Henry
Manufacturer of Popcorn Specialties
147 Illinois Street, Chicago
Page 72 (Ad)

HOSSACK, William
147 Lake Street 1839
Sold out to D. A. BARROWS & CO. prior to 1843
Page 11

HOYT, Frank W.
Ad: “Frank W. HOYT, Attorney at Law, 225 Dearborn Street, Rooms 820-824, Chicago”
Page 155 (Ad)

HUCKINS, A. A.
In cigar and tobacco business
Began jobbing candies 1880’s
Financial Secretary of the Confectionery Agents’ Union and President when organization
disbanded
Remained in business until he died several years afterward
Page 69

HUCKINS, C. L.
Began business as jobber “this year” September 1, 1878(?)
Still a jobber in 1905
Ex-President of the Association (Jobbing Confectioners’) and represented it to National
Association
Page 67

HUNT
WUEST-BAUMAN-HUNT CO.
Cleveland, Ohio
Ad: “We are the originators and makers of the only GENUINE ITALIAN CREAM on the market.
Flavors: Vanila, Chocolate, Orange, Peach Also the original PRINCESS KISS, A most delicious
piece of molasses candy. We also make Creameata Nut Nougat and Vanila and Chocolate Walnut
block. BEWARE OF IMITATIONS! Attempts have been and are being made to imitate our goods.
Our goods are still unequaled. The WUEST-BAUMAN-HUNT CO. Cleveland, Ohio.”
Page 139 (Ad)

HUNT, Frank
Made his bow to the candy trade as a jobber in June 1893
Was in business for a few years
Sold jobbing business to B. M. COLE on transfer of card from Robert SPEAR November 1902
Has also been in city department of M. SHIELDS & CO.
Page 103, 121

HUTCHINSON, John
Partnered with Charles SASSAMAN in SASSAMAN & HUTCHINSON 200 Clark Street 1879
Bought out SASSAMAN
Partnered with Albert JAMIESON in HUTCHINSON & JAMIESON 159 West Madison Street 1879
Sold out to Charles MATT 1880
Page 15, 59

HYDE PARK CANDY CO.
Began manufacturing at 630 Forty-third Street in 1901
Page 119

HYNONS
(Note: Also spelled “HYNOUS” on page 99 and in Ad page 146)
BENDA & HYNONS
Bought business of W. M. URBANCK Nov. 1, 1893
(Note: URBANCK also spelled “URBANEK” on page 99)
Do a large business at 1184 South Spaulding Avenue 1905
Ad: “BENDA & HYNOUS 1184 South Spaulding Avenue, We are the SPECIALTY men you are looking
for. Have you seen our Penny BUTTON & BADGE PRIZE — The greatest seller on the market.
We also have new candy by the carloads. Drop us a Postal and be convinced.”
Page 53, 99, 146 (Ad)

HYNOUS
(Note: Also spelled “HYNONS” on page 53)
BENDA & HYNONS
Bought business of W. M. URBANCK Nov. 1, 1893
(Note: URBANCK also spelled “URBANEK” on page 99)
Do large business at 1184 South Spaulding Avenue 1905
Ad: “BENDA & HYNOUS 1184 South Spaulding Avenue, We are the SPECIALTY men you are looking
for. Have you seen our Penny BUTTON & BADGE PRIZE — The greatest seller on the market.
We also have new candy by the carloads. Drop us a Postal and be convinced.”
Page 53, 99. 146 (Ad)

INLANDER, S.
Began jobbing business on May 1, 1888
Business located at 5010 Ashland Avenue 1897
Continued in candy business until October 1, 1897
Sold out to Joseph GOLDSTEIN to embark in the paper business 1897
Page 85, 113

JACOBSON, Julius J.
Started jobbing business 1894
Begins manufacturing at 44 Frank Street in 1902
Ad: “J. J. JACOBSON Jobbing Confectioner 607 S. Albany Av.”
Page 109, 119, 142 (Ad)

JAMISON, Albert
Partnered with John HUTCHINSON at 159 West Madison Street
Page 59

JANSEN, A.
Bought out jobbing business of Bernhard TORMOEHLEN December 15, 1896
Ad: “A. JANSEN Wholesale Confectioner 1524 Lexington St., Chicago”
Page 113, 182 (Ad)

JEFFERSON, S. R.
Partnered with Edward MORAN, purchased business of Charles SASSAMAN, became S. R. JEFFERSON
& Co. and located at 92 West Randolph Street 1865
Edward MORAN replaced by James REED as partner, new firm name became JEFFERSON & REED and
moved to 159 South Clark Street 1866
Sold out interest to MORGAN 1868
Opened retail business at 324 West Madison Street 1870
Moved to 150 South Halsted St where he continued for a number of years 1873
Page 15, 35

JENSEN, T. H.
Began manufacturing at 208 Illinois 1900
Predecessor of CAMERON & MARBACH
102-104 W. Adam Street
Page 31 (Ad), 117

JERSA, Steve
(Note: Spelled “JIRSA” on page 125)
1139 Sawyer Avenue
Began in jobbing business buying out Thomas ZAJICEK January 7, 1905
Ad: “Steve JERSA, 1139 S. Sawyer Ave Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 125, 134 (Ad)

JETTER, Albert
Came from Buffalo, New York to Chicago
Vice President of the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association
Appointed as committee member to create Jobbing Confectioners’ Association 1894
First Sergeant at Arms of newly formed National Jobbing Confectioners’ Association 1895
Page 83, 93

JIENCKE CANDY CO.
Begins manufacturing at 104 South Desplaines in 1902
Page 119

JIRSA, Steven
Note: Spelled “JERSA” in ad on page 134)
1139 Sawyer Avenue
Began in jobbing business buying out Thomas ZAJICEK January 7, 1905
Ad: “Steve JERSA, 1139 S. Sawyer Ave Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 125, 134 (Ad)

JONANOVICH
ROESCHMANN & JONANOVICH
Began manufacturing at 171 South Desplaines 1901
Page 119

JOOST, Henry
Retail and wagon trade at 108 West Lake Street 1861 – 1884
Bought out “jobber” business of Henry DEYOUNG 1878
Retired 1884
Page 25, 39

JORDAN, August
Began business on November 18th (perhaps 1880’s?)
Served as representative of the Chicago Association to the National Association (of Jobbing
Confectioners)
Member of the Finance Committee of the national convention (National Jobbing Confectioner’s
Association)
Ad: “Aug. JORDAN Jobbing Confectioner 1299 Southport Avenue (includes photo of horse and
wagon)”
Resides at 1299 Southport Avenue 1905
Page 67, 150 (Ad)

JOSSELYN, E. H.
Ad: “ONE MOMENT PLEASE! If you do not want to handle pure, good eating penny goods, for
goodness sake, don’t buy JOSSELYN’S cocoanut waffles and macaroons…NUF SAID! E. H.
JOSSELYN — Baltimore, Maryland”
Page 163 (Ad)

JUNG, Wm. H.
Ad: “WM. H. JUNG Restaurateur 106 E. Randolph St., Chicago, Party and Wedding Dinners
arranged in Modern Style”
Page 186 (Ad)
KADERLI, Franz
Began jobbing (late 1880’s?) and is still at it in 1905
Ad: “FRANZ KADERLI Wholesale Confectioner 273 Center Street”
Resides at 273 Center Street
Page 87, 135 (Ad)

KADERLI, Fred
Began business about the same time (as Franz KADERLI — in late 1880’s?)
Page 87

KASPAR, Anton
Began jobbing candies on Sept 9 1889
Branched out as a manufacturer of specialities 1900
Located at 1067 South Homan Avenue 1905
Mrs. A. KASPAR was member of the Ladies’ Auxiliary of the Chicago Jobbing Confectioners’
Association when first formed March 1, 1905
Ad: “ANTON KASPAR, 1067 S. Homan Ave. Manufacturer of ATLAS WAFERS and Dealer in all kinds
of Candies”
Page 89, 125, 186 (Ad)

KEHOE
BOLES & KEHOE
Began manufacturing at 71 State Street and still in business 1905
Main business to supply their retail trade
Page 69

KELLEY, E. F.
KELLEY & GOELITZ began manufacturing at 55 South Desplaines in 1904
Ad: (Two pages on yellow heavy paper, with red and black type):
THE GOELITZ CONFECTIONERY CO., Adolph Goelitz, President; Gustava Goelitz, Vice Pres; E. F.
Kelley, Secy & Treas., Herman Goelitz, Gen. Manager; Factories at Chicago and Cincinnati,
“None so Good” (trademark), “Butter Sweets” (trademark), “From ocean to ocean they shine
supreme” Photo of open lidded box with phot of young girl with hand on chin “Our Little
Butter Miss.” Page 2 of Add includes list of candies and prices for each.
Page 112-113 (2-page Ad), 123

KERR (& REYNOLDS)
70 North Clark Street
Page 13

KESSLER, L. H.
Bought out horse and wagon business of M. L. ROBERTS 1884
Sold out in 1895
Page 57, 79

KING, W. R.
Added candies to his toy business and was a jobber until moving to New York City in 1885
Page 77

KINNE, Harry H.
248 South St. Louis Avenue
Became a jobber in June 1896
“…at once became a debator among the debators in the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association,
has been Vice President and a delegate to the national body.” 1905
Ad: “GIBSON, SYKES and FOWLER, McVICKER’S THEATRE BLDG. “The Five “Live Wires” of the
Jobbing Confectioners of Chicago” Give us your orders for standard and up to date
confections” (each of the five gentlemen are identified by name and address: A. THOMPSON
7041 Union Ave., H. G. GUEST 11919 S. Halsted St., Albert FAYETTE 219 Oakley Blvd., H. H.
KINNE, 248 S. St. Louis Ave., Wm. WEIS, 43 Surrey Ct.)
Page 102 (Ad/Photo of “The Five “Live Wires””), 113

KINSON, Henry
(Employed by DINET 1849-50)
Page 11

KIRCHMAN, Max
PETERMICHEL & KIRCHMAN began jobbing candies (late 1880-early 1890?)
“In a few months, Max KIRCHMAN bought out his partner and started manufacturing at 774 West
12th Street, corner of Paulina” 1892
Sold jobbers route to V. MACHEK March 1893
Sold jobbing route to J. RUPPERT 1894
Built factory further west on 12th Street where he remained until 1894
Surrendered business to creditors
Restarted business at 181 West Randolph Street in 1896
Gradually changed business into grocers’ sundries
Page 75, 95, 99, 109

KLAUS, Charles H.
3949 Fifth Avenue
Bought out jobbing business from Martin SCHROEDER February 2, 1905
Page 105, 125

KLEIN, E.
567 West Huron Street
Began jobbing in July (late 1880’s?) per page 79
Began jobbing in May 1885 per page 125
Remained in business until April 10, 1905
Sold out to Charles HOFFMAN
Page 79, 125

KLEINBECK
FRYE, KLEINBECK AND BAUM
195 Michigan Avenue
One of the new houses “this year” (early 1890’s?)
Page 95

KLEINTGES, P.
(Employed by DINET 1849-50)
Page 11

KLICKA, Frank
(Note: Spelled KLIKA on pages 125 and in Ad on page 159)
Started at the same time (1893) and has remained in business 1905
Mrs. F. Klika, member of Ladies Auxiliary of the Chicago Jobbing Confectioners’ Association
when first formed March 1, 1905
Ad: “FRANK KLIKA 872 Harding Av. Jobbing Confectioners”
Page 103, 125, 159 (Ad)

KLIKA, Frank
(Note: Spelled KLICKA on page 103)
Started at the same time (1893) and has remained in business 1905
Mrs. F. Klika, member of Ladies Auxiliary of the Chicago Jobbing Confectioners’ Association
when first formed March 1, 1905
Ad: “FRANK KLIKA 872 Harding Av. Jobbing Confectioners”
Page 103, 125, 159 (Ad)

KNAPP, Richard J.
Added a line of candies to his bakery business then abandoned bakery line
City salesman for BROOKS & HAEHNLEN
Went into business for himself until Spring 1899
In retail business at Robey Street and Grand Avenue 1905
Page 63

KNICKERBOCKER CHOCOLATE CO., INC.
99 Randolph St., Chicago
Ad: “KNICKERBOCKER CHOCOLATE, CO., INC. (logo: circle inside of which is drawing of Peter
Stuyvesant, his name, the word “trademark” and around the perimeter, the words
“KNICKERBOCKER CHOCOLATE CO. – NEW YORK”). Manufacturers of 16 to 1 Chocolate 1 cent bars.
Chicago Office, 99 Randolph St. Insist on getting the best — There is no other piece just
as good. If your supply wagon man doesn’t carry it drop a postal to the above address and
we will have you supplied by an up to date wagon man who carries this article in stock.”
Page 182 (Ad)

KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS
Ad: “VAN BUREN Lodge No. 531. Knights of Pythias, Castle Hall — N. W. Corner Madison St.,
and California Ave., Chicago. Regular Conventions every Wednesday evening at eight o’clock;
Rank Work first three conventions of each month. Visitors cordially invited. W. L.
CALLAWAY, Chancellor Commander. W. L. CHRYSTAL, K. of R. & S.”
Page 114

KNOCKENMUSS, George
Began jobbing business 1897
Went out of business 1899
Page 115

KNOER, George
(Confusing entries on page 125 listing George KNOER as starting jobbing in 1904 at Moffat
St address and George KNORR starting in 1905 (no address) while ad on page 170 lists George
KNORR at Moffat Street Address — These may be same person)
69 Moffat Street
Started out jobbing business buying out F. F. KRAUS January 1905
Ad: “Geo. KNORR 69 Moffat St. Jobbing Confectioner”
Page 125, 170 (Ad)

KNORR, George
(Confusing entries on page 125 listing George KNOER as starting jobbing in 1904 at Moffat
St address and George KNORR starting in 1905 (no address) while ad on page 170 lists George
KNORR at Moffat Street Address — These may be same person)
Started in jobbing business 1904
Ad: “Geo. KNORR 69 Moffat St. Jobbing Confectioner”
Page 125, 170 (Ad)

KOEBELIN, John L.
Bought out jobbing business of Michael ZUBER at 1242 North Halsted February 1899
Ad: “John L. Koebelin, 1242 N. Halsted St. Jobbing Confectioner”
Page 107, 117, 134 (Ad)

KOENITZER, Gustav
Began as jobber in May (1870’s?)
“(he) saw many of the ups and downs of the business during the time he was on a wagon.”
Sold out to William H. YOUNG January 5, 1903
Page 59, 121

KOESSLER, August
Began jobbing January 5, 1879
“well known for his comical stories…and was always with the jobbers who aimed at better
conditions.”
Represented the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association to the national body and was member of
the amusement committee and instrumental in getting up many charming entertainments
Sold his business to F. A. SEBASTIAN on March 20, 1905
Now in the bakery business 1905
Page 67, 125

KOHNSTAMM, H.
KOHNSTAMM & CO.
Ad: “ATLAS Non-Poisonous Colors, H. KOHNSTAMM & CO., New York, Chicago, Brilliant Rose,
Warranted free from poison”
Page 150 (Ad)

KOHS, Charles W.
Started jobbing business June 1896
Sold out to Charles H. LINDEMANN January 28, 1897
Member of the Executive Committee of the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association 1905
Page 113

KOPP, Jacob
Brother of Michael KOPP
Went to Omaha with Anton C. DREIBUS and brother, Michael KOPP, and formed firm of KOPP,
DRIEBUS & CO. 1884
Page 69

KOPP, Michael
Brother of Jacob KOPP
Worked for John KRANZ as wagon driver and city salesman
Drove wagon for BUNTE BROS. & SPOEHR at 416 State Street 1876
City salesman for SPOEHR & SCHWARTZ
City salesman for C. A. SPOEHR
Went into business for himself 1880
Organizer of first Jobbers’ Association in the United States
Organizer, First Marshal and eventually President of Confectionery Agents’ Union at 54 West
Lake Street in November 1880
Went to Omaha with Anton C. DREIBUS and brother, Jacob KOPP, and formed firm of KOPP,
DRIEBUS & CO. 1884
Withdrew from that firm and went to Salt Lake City, Utah, in September 1888
Began selling out to the WESTERN CANDY CO. on Nov. 1, 1900
Largely interested in mining properties 1905
Page 55, 57. 69, 73

KRANZ, John
Born in Germany 1841
Emigrated at comparatively young age first to Philadelphia “…where he learned the trade of
candy making in a first class establishment.”
Moved to Chicago 1869
Began manufacturing candy at 285 South Halsted Street 1870
Moved to 115 Blue Island Avenue and started out two wagons 1871
Employed Charles A. SPOEHR 1871-1876
Employed Albert and Gustav BUNTE
Employed Ferdinand BUNTE as foreman pre-1885
Employed Albert BUNTE as foreman 1888-1905
Employed Michael KOPP and Adam SCHOTT as wagon drivers pre-1876
Moved to 78 and 80 South State Street 1873
Purchased business of and employed Frank PILGRIM at 256 Milwaukee Ave. May 1, 1875
Purchased property at 74 and 76 Randolph Street for factory 1877 (still in use in 1905)
“John Kranz has been one of the most successful manufacturers of confectionery that Chicago
has ever had and this success is largely attributable to the fact that his goods have
universally been of a high grade. During the early seventies large quantities of cheap
candy were placed upon the market and prices were cut right and left. The aim of the
manufacturer seemed to be to give as much as he possibly could for the money. This state
of affairs soon led (to) disastrous results and a number of makers of cheap goods had to
retire from the business. John Kranz had his own ideas about these cheap goods and refused
absolutely to enter into competition with them. On the other hand, he kept improving his
product and asking a higher price for it. The result was that the wagon man and the
retailer were both able to sell his goods at a fair profit and he built up a sound and
ever-increasing business.”
Page 35, 41, 43, 51

KRAUS, F. F.
(Note: Spelled as KRAUSE on page 39)
Bought out “jobber” business of O. HOECKZEMA in 1904
Sold out business to George KNOER January 1905
Page 39, 125

KRAUSE, F. F.
(Note: Spelled as KRAUS in two places on page 125)
Bought out “jobber” business of O. HOECKZEMA in 1904
Sold out business to George KNOER January 1905
Page 39, 125

KRAUSE, O. H.
Bought out F. A.. MERRILL’S jobber business (late 1880’s?)
Page 81

KRAWITZ, L.
Started in July 1893, remaining in business for about five years 1898
Page 103

KRETCHMER, Martin C.
Purchased business from Matt OWENS
KRETCHMER bought out interest of Ernest A. MORRIS and partnered with Theodore GOTTMANN in
firm of GOTTMAN & KRETCHMER at 158 West Jackson Street 1903-1904
Ad: “158 W. Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, Illinois, is where the celebrated Surinam
Chocolates are manufactured. They are delicious “bitter sweet” and a big seller. A full
line of Novelties in new penny goods always on hand. GOTTMAN & KRETCHMER”
Member of Committee appointed to form national jobbers association 1894
Incorporator and first Recording Secretary of newly formed Jobbing Confectioners’
Association March 10, 1901
Page 40 (Ad), 51, 93, 123

KREUGER, A. F. Paul
Began jobbing business 1894
Page 109

KROELL, J. F.
67 Forty-first Avenue
Started in jobbing business having bought out business of G. J. PLACK at 1990 Wilcox Avenue
April 1905
Ad: “J. F. KROELL 67 41st Avenue Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 125 , 178 (Ad)

KRUGER, Peter
Sold jobbing business to Jacob C. HANSON June 1, 1894
Page 109

KUHL, Bernard “Cool Benny”
Began jobbing August 12, 1889
Past Vice President of Jobbing Confectioners’ Association, representative to the national
body and prominent on committees
Still active in business 1905
Ad: “BEN KUHL, 1974 Elston Av. Wholesale Confectioner”
Resides at: 1974 Elston Avenue 1905
Page 89, 134 (Ad)

KUYVENHOVEN, John
Started as a “jobber” Feb 1 (no year, but likely 1870’s)
Located at 517 Blue Island Avenue 1905
Ad “John KUYVENHOVEN, 517 Blue Island Ave. Jobbing Confectioner”
Page 57, 159 (Ad)

LAEMMER, August
Began jobbing “this year” (perhaps 1880’s)
Continued until retirement on account of health 1896
Died 1904
Page 75

LAMA, B
Bought out jobbing business of Ernest SCHOENHOFF 1894
Page 109

LANCASTER
LANCASTER CARAMEL CO.
Began as wholesale and manufacturing company at 119 West Harrison in 1893
Page 99

LANDGRAF, William
Bought out jobbing business of William SCHOTTMILLER in June 1893
Has since been identified with jobbing interests 1905
Member of Finance Committee of Jobbing Confectioners’ Association and a representative to
the national body; “Is one of the men who have steadily worked to crowd all short count and
unfair goods out of the market.”
Resides at 514 Francisco Street 1905
Ad: “Wm LANDGRAF, 514 N. Francisco St. Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 83, 103, 155 (Ad)

LANDIS, H.
Bought out H. YOUNKER’S wagon jobber business May 1876
Went out of business Fall 1883
Page 51

LANGAN, John B.
Partnered with Michael Shields as M. SHIELDS & CO. at 43 and 45 State Street 1884
Moved to 51 – 55 South Jefferson Street “one of the lightest, if not the lightest, plants
used for a candy factory in Chicago, and installed entirely new machinery. The firm dos a
large trade with the jobbers of Chicago.”
Page 65

LARSEN, L.
Sold out jobbing business to Charles STRUCK August 1898
Page 115

LAWLER, William
Began a jobbing business in 1901
On the Entertainment Committee of the National Jobbing Confectioners’ Association
Convention
Ad: “Wm. LAWLER 1488 Washtenaw Av. Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 119, 134 (Ad)

LAUER
LAUER & SUTER CO.
Ad: “We are manufacturers of good eating and good selling Penny Novelties See our samples
before buying. The LAUTER & SUTER CO. 1420 to 1431 Philpot Street, Baltimore, Maryland”
Page 147 (Ad)

LAUTENSLAGER, B. A.
Ad: “LAXATIVA CHEWING GUM is a ready seller where once introduced; for who once tries it
will always buy it, for nine out of ten troubled with constipation are in the habit of
using such as pill tablets, etc., which can be done away with and still do the work y
chewing LAXATIVA Chewing gum, which is sold by all wide awake storekeepers, as it is
increasing their trade and adding more profit to their business. For sale by all up to
date candy men. Ask for it. Manufactured only by B.A. LAUTENSLAGER CO., 161 So. Canal
Street, Chicago, Illinois.”
Page 170 (Ad)

LEIMERT, Wm.
Came to Chicago from Philadelphia May 1857
Hired as candy factory foreman by Sassaman & Hickman 1857
“After LEIMERT was hired as foreman the firm began to turn out new goods. Leimert brought
with him from Philadelphia many new ideas and was the first in Chicago to make cococanut
(sic) cakes, cream goods and bon-bons. Nothing but hard goods were mad ein Chicago prior
to this time and the majority of manufactures was stick candy.”
Partnered with Mark S. VANDUZEN and John C. NEEMES & Co. 1878 -1892
Foreman of “Berry’s” new factory 1905
Page 13, 31

LEINDECKER, William
Sold jobbing business to G. A. GROTH September 1, 1894
Page 109

LENT, Lawrence E.
LENT, Mrs. Lawrence E. Ladies Auxiliary of Chicago Jobbing Confectioners Association (Group
Photo Page 78, text 125)
Born at Belle Isle, New York on January 11, 1845
Employed by Robert H. FISH from spring of 1865 to May 1, 1868
Employed by R. J. CAMPBELL as city salesman at business located at southwest corner of Lake
and Paulina Streets until May 1, 1872 – May, 1872
Built wagon and went into business for himself May 1, 1872
Partnered with Mr. HOFFMAN in firm of HOFFMAN & LENT at 799 West Madison Street (dissolved
same year) 1879
Went into business for himself again as jobber of candies 1879
Treasurer of the Chicago Jobbing Confectioners’ Association, “…is the oldest in the jobbing
business in Chicago…os always a consistent and able worker in the business.” 1905
Chairman of the Committee on Arrangements
Member of Finance Committee of the convention
Still in business and resides at 811 Warren Avenue (in 1905)
Page 37, 39, 50 (Photo), 72 (Ad). 78 (Mrs. Lent Group Photo), 95, 125, 187

LENZ, S. R.
Sold out jobbing business to Julius SENDLINGER at 138 Sigel Street June 1902
Page 121

LEUDTKE, Henry G.
Bought out wagon jobber business of Austin WALSH Spring 1873
Trustee of the newly formed Confectioners’ Agents’ Union 1880
Ran business until death May 1891
Son succeeded him and continued business until May 15, 1893
Son sold out to Henry MEISTERLING May 15, 1893
Page 51, 73

LEUSCH, August
Started jobbing business August 1 (no year, perhaps 1880’s)
Officer of both the Confectionery Agents’ Union and the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association
Sergeant at Arms of newly formed Jobbing Confectioners Association March 10, 1901
Sold out to Charles BRANDENBURG on August 1, 1892
Page 63, 93, 99

LEVERENTZ, Henry W.
General Teaming
Office: 248 South Desplaines Street
Residence: 111 Bissell Street between Clay and Willow, Chicago
Page 72 (Ad)

LEWIS, E. J.
Began as manufacturer at 290 State Street 1870
After “the fire” (October 9, 1871) moved to 686 State Street
Moved to Robey and West Lake Street 1874
Retired 1882
Page 41

LINDBERG, Louis
Bought out jobbing business of Hans HANSEN January 20, 1900
406 West Chicago Avenue
Ad: “Louis LINDBERG, Wholesale Confectioner, 353 N. Lincoln Street”
Page 117, 155 (Ad)

LINDEMANN, Charles H.
Bought out jobbing business of Charles W. KOHS January 28, 1897
Member of the Executive Committee of the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association and on the
Banquet Committee of the Convention
Ad: “Chas. H. LINDEMANN Jobbing Confectioner 3063 Broad St.”
3063 Broad Street 1905
Page 113, 115, 135 (Ad)

LINDEMAN, Fred
Bought a horse, wagon and route from Adam SCHOTT Spring 1878
Notable figure in the business retired in 1894
Page 65

LINK, R.
Began as manufacturer at 191 East Washington Street
Burned out and quit business
Page 41

LOBENTHAL, A..
(Note spelled “L. LOBETHAL” on page 79)
Began jobbing in July (perhaps late 1880’s?)
Continued ’til having been killed by a “runaway” (horse?) on August 3, 1892
Frank ROTH assumed business
Page 79, 97

LOBETHAL, L.
(Note: spelled “A. LOBENTHAL” on page 97)
Began jobbing in July (perhaps late 1880’s?)
Continued ’til having been killed by a “runaway” (horse?) on August 3, 1892
Frank ROTH assumed business
Page 79, 97

LOERCKE, O. W.
Sold out jobbing business to William REIDENBACH 1894
Bought out jobbing business of Eli A. BAUMEISTER 1899
Page 85, 107

LOWNEY
LOWNEY CO.
279 Madison
Began as wholesale and manufacturing concern 1892
Describing the evolution of the candy trade from the mid 1850’s to 1905, “In consequence
there was little money spent for candies then in proportion to what there was later on,
when the quality was improved. This was not brought about by either the manufacturer or
retailer, but by the jobber, who gradually dropped out the sticky compounds and began
pushing such goods as HAWLEY’S Chocolate Drops, which by the way, was the first really good
chocolate drop to be put on the market…Where HAWLEY at first and LOWNEY for a brief time,
later on, had the reputation of making the finest goods on the market, they fast lost their
prestige as far superior goods are to-day placed on the market by any number of
manufacturers.
Page 95, 127

LUCETT, J. J.
Began jobbing candies in March 1897
Resides at: 171 North Humboldt Street 1905
Ad: “J. J. LUCETT, 171 N. Humboldt St., Wholesale Confectioner)
Page 113, 155 (Ad)

LYON & CO.
Began manufacturing at 34 Washington 1900
Plant at 51 South Union Street absorbed by the NATIONAL CANDY COMPANY IN 1903
Page 117, 121

MACHEK, V.
Bought out a jobbers route from Max KIRCHMAN March 1893
“…has large trade in his section of the city.”
Resides at 1200 South Sawyer Avenue
Page 99

MACINTOSH, George H.
Formerly a jobber at Kansas City, Missouri
Moved to Chicago November
Member of several important committees of the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association
Retired from business August 1, 1893
Sold out to Joseph A. WEIDERKEHR
Page 67

MACKENZIE, Robert F.
THE ROBERT F. MACKENZIE CO.
Cleveland, Ohio
“Wee MACGREGOR Cough Drops,” “Old Hickory Nut Nougat,” Sunbeam Kisses,” Blue Bell Brand
Italian Cream
Ad Insert between pages 22 and 23

MAGINN, Charles
CHARLES MAGINN & CO.
12 North State Street
Began manufacturing in late 1880’s
Page 81

MARBACH
CAMERON & MARBACH
Partner of J. W. CAMERON
102-104 West Adams Street
In partnership with CAMERON bought out T. H. JENSON at 171 and 173 South Desplaines
creating CAMERON & MARBACH May 1, 1904
Tore down building and relocated to 102 and 104 West Adams Street (formerly owned by Arthur
STEIN) where they have floor space of about 10,000 square feet May 1, 1905
Ad: “CAMERON & MARBACH, Successors to T. H. JENSEN, Manufacturing Confectioners, 102-104 W.
Adams Street, Chicago, Italian Cream and Cocoanut Specialties, Fine Sherbert Penny Goods,
Manufacturers of the well known “MILLS BRAND” Salted Peanuts”
Page 32 (Ad), 91,123

MARUGG, Richard
MARUGG, Mrs. Richard, first Chairman Amusement Committee of the Ladies Auxiliary of Chicago
Jobbing Confectioners Association when formed March 1, 1905 (Group Photo Page 78, text 125)
Bought a route from Albert CURETON January 1, 1896
Today a partner of A. E. ABBS & CO 1905
Member of the Finance Committee of the National Convention
Ad: “A. E. ABBS & CO. 30 Park Avenue “Jobbers of all kinds of Fine Confectionery” (includes
photo of Richard MARUGG and A. E. ABBS) Your wants and orders will be promptly attended
to.”
Page 36 (Photo/Ad), 78 (Mrs. MARUGG Group Photo), 113, 125

MATHER, C.S.
C.S. MATHER & SON began manufacturing specialties August 1 1894
In business still as WESTERN CONFECTIONERY CO., Jackson and Clinton Streets, 1904
Specialty is popcorn goods
Page 52 (Ad), 109

MATHES
MATHES & MCINTYRE
Wholesale business at 108 Dearborn Street 1869
Succeeded by E. G. MCINTYRE in 1870
Burned out 1871
Page 41

MATT, Charles
Bought out HUTCHINSON & JAMIESON 159 Madison Street and afterwards failed1880
Bought out the jobbing business of A. CONKLIN 1884
Sold business back to A. CONKLIN 1885
Page 15, 69

MCDONALD BROS.
206 State Street
Partnered with C. P. STILLMAN as MCDONALD BROS. & STILLMAN
“Manufactured several specialties and built up a fair trade”
Transferred business to Pittsburg in Fall 1876
Page 53, 57

MCGREEVEY, H.
Son of P.H. MCGREEVEY
Continued father’s “jobber” business from 1872 – 1905
Page 39

MCGREEVEY, P. H. (MCGREEVEY, H., Son)
Started by running a wagon (as a “jobber’) in the fall of 1869 – 1872
Retired 1872
Succeeded by son, H. MCGREEVEY who still continues in business (1905)
Page 39

MCINTYRE
MATHES & MCINTYRE
Wholesale business at 108 Dearborn Street 1869
Succeeded by E. G. MCINTYRE in 1870
Burned out 1871
Page 41

MEISTERLING, Henry
(See also Henry MESTERLING (page 91) could be same person?)
Bought out wagon jobbers business of Austin WEBB’S son May 15, 1893
Sold out to A. E. ABBS & CO. May 1, 1894
Page 51

MEISTERLING, William
Bought out jobbers business of Louis EHEIM March 1, 1893
Page 77

MEISSNER, Hugo
Employed by Adam SCHOTT to handle jobber wagon business
In business for himself July 1878
Still running wagon 1905
Resides at 365 Campbell Avenue 1905
Page 63, 65

MERRILL Brothers
MERRILL, George G.
F. A MERRILL
George was salesman for DAWSON & SHIELDS
George purchased jobbing business of Adolph GEORG 1873
George remained in business until his death in 1881
Succeeded by his brother, F. A. MERRILL
F. A. Merrill sold out to O. H. KRAUSE
Page 37, 57, 81

MERTEL, William
Started in jobbing business 1904
Page 125

MESTERLING, Henry
(See also Henry MEISTERLING, could be same person?)
Bought wagon from J. W. CAMERON July 30, 1893
Sold out jobbing business to V. C. BLAHA August 1903
Page 91, 123

MEYER, A C.
Began jobbing business in 1898
Still in business 1905
Ad: “A. C. MEYER Wholesale Confectioner 2704 Wallace Street, Chicago”
Page 115, 163 (Ad)

MEYER, C. H.
Factory on West Randolph Street near Canal 1857
Sold out to HESS BROS. 1858
Went to work for SASSAMAN & HICKMAN 1858
Page 13, 23

MEYER, Fred W.
Ad: “FRED W. MEYER 4105 Wentworth Ave. Jobbing Confectioner”
Page 170 (Ad)

MEYER, Joseph
(See also MYERS, Joseph per page 189)
Sergeant at Arms, Chicago Jobbing Confectioners’ Association “…is a well known figure among
the jobbers and is by no means a quiet one, and is about the heaviest man in the business”
1905
Ad: “JOE MEYER, 845 W. Taylor St. Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 55 (Photo), 95, 158 (Ad), 189

MICHAELS, Charles
Ran a wagon from March 1, 1862 to June 12, 1865
Killed by fire engine June 12, 1865
Page 25

MICHEL, P. H.
Ad: ” P. H. MICHEL, 194 Hastings St., Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 159 (Ad)

MILLER, D. F.
(Note: Described as MILLER, S. F. on page 113)
Sold out jobbing business at 2399 Wilcox Avenue to M. J. RALSON April 18, 1904
Page 113, 125

MILLER, George
GEORGE MILLER & SON
Of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Started manufacturing branch at 199-201 Van Buren, northeast corner of Van Buren and
Franklin Streets, with Charles HAMILL in charge, March 1892
Discontinued branch January 1, 1894
Ad: “Geo. Miller & Son Co. — All good sellers Violet Chewing gum, four flavors:
Peppermint, Violet, Cachou, Wintergreen — Delicious for Indigestion and breath — Dandy
Chocolate — The best selling penny Chocolate. For sale by all jobbers. Geo. MILLER & SON
CO. 255 S. Third Street Philadelphia”
Page 95, 97. 154 (Ad)

MILLER, S. F.
(Note: described as D. F. MILLER on page 125)
2399 Wilcox Avenue
Began jobbing in 1897
Sold out to M. J. RALSTON April 18, 1904
Page 113, 125

MILLS, D. W.
Eventually a Congressman
Began manufacturing at 30 West Lake Street
“Abandoned business for politics wherein he was more successful.” 1873
Page 43

MOENCH, August
Bought route from Joseph WIEDERKEHR and began jobbing business at 138 Sigel Street 1902
Page 121

MOENICH, L. A.
Ad: “L. A. MOENICH 254 Jansen Avenue Jobbing Confectioner”
Page 142 (Ad)

MOHR, Joseph
“Started manufacturing candy in a small way in a shop on South Water Street near Wells
Street and on the north side 1837-1839
Page 9, 11

MONAHAN CHOCOLATE CREAM CO.
Began manufacturing at 363 Division in 1903
Page 121

MORAN
MORAN & STOUT, confectioners at Randolph Street near Jefferson Street 1854
Page 13

MORAN, Edward
Partnered with S. R. JEFFERSON in buying out Charles SASSAMAN (formerly at 39 Randolph
Street) and became S. R. JEFFERSON & CO. moving to 92 West Randolph Street 1865
Retired and was succeeded by James Reed 1866
Page 15, 35

MORGAN
Bought out S. R. JEFFERSON’S share of business at 159 South Clark Street, which moved to
48 West Randolph St. and went out of business following year 1868-1869
Page 35

MORRIS, Ernest A.
Partnered with John GERTENRICH and Theodore GOTTMANN, all former employees of M SHIELDS &
CO., in confectionery manufacturing business called E. A. MORRIS & CO at 194 South Clinton
Street March 25, 1887
Moved to 85 West Jackson Street 1888
Factory moved to 158 West Jackson Street and changed name to MORRIS & GOTTMAN 1894
Sold out interest in firm to Martin C. KRETCHMER 1903
Page 83, 123

MORRIS, Geo.
“Jobber” 169 State Street 1861
360 West Twelfth Street near Morgan Street 1900
Page 25

MORSE, A. G.
(Note: Per Ad on page 128 is A. G. MORSE, on page 117 is A. C. MORSE)
Began manufacturing at 197 South Canal 1896
Began manufacturing 17-19 River 1900
Ad: “Our specialty “Getting Repeat Orders” — A full line of chocolates and bon bons in
fancy packages and 5 lb. Boxes. Large assortment of 5 and 10 cent packages. MORSE’S Good
Eating Specialties — Satin finished hard candy. A. G. MORSE CO, Chicago.”
Page 111, 117, 130 (Ad)

MORSE, Andrew C.
(Note: Per Ad on page 128 is A. G. MORSE, on page 117 is A. C. MORSE)
Began manufacturing at 197 South Canal 1896
Began manufacturing 17-19 River 1900
Ad: “Our specialty “Getting Repeat Orders” — A full line of chocolates and bon bons in
fancy packages and 5 lb. Boxes. Large assortment of 5 and 10 cent packages. MORSE’S Good
Eating Specialties — Satin finished hard candy. A. G. MORSE CO, Chicago.”
Page 111, 117, 130 (Ad)

MOSS, Walter
Partnered with MURPHY in MOSS & MURPHY 1875
Bought out MURPHY 1877
Partnered with Charles SASSAMAN in SASSAMAN & MOSS, 200 Clark Street
Sold out to SASSAMAN 1880
Page 15, 59

MUELLER, August P.
Bought out jobbing business of Wilhelm REIDERBACH 1896
Still jobbing 1905
Ad: “Aug. MUELLER, 780 N. Winchester Av., Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 113, 134 (Ad)

MUELLER, John
Ad: “The JOHN MUELLER LICORICE CO., 2117-2119-2121-2123 Reading Road, Cincinnati,
Manufacturers of “Famous” LICORICE Specialties (12 types listed) — OUR LATEST NOVELTIES:
(7 listed)”
Page 167 (Ad)

MUGGERDITIAN, V
Partnered with V. G. GUARINIAN (from Constantinople, Turkey), to manufacture Fig paste and
other Turkish Candies. “Started in one small room 20 X 40 Feet at 207 South Canal Street
and in March 1896 was incorporated as the ORIENTAL MANUFACTURING CO.”
Moved to 249 South Jefferson Street 1897
Moved to 206 Illinois Street 1899
Moved to 198 and 200 South Center Avenue with plant of 12,000 square feet 1902
Page 99

MULL, George S.
Started in jobbing business in June 1894
A past officer of the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association
Resides at: 4521 Evans Avenue 1905
Page 107

MULLARKEY, W. E.
1267 Jackson Boulevard
Began in jobbing business by buying out T. A. CHAPMAN March 1905
Page 125

MULVANEY, Simon
Employed as city salesman by DAWSON & SHIELDS November 1 – 1871 – 1875
Started own business 1875
Sold out business to Matt OWENS 1878
Page 51

MULVEY, John R.
Bought out A. M. GROVE in January (in early 1890’s?)
Doing large business 1905
Past President of the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association
“a very forcible speaker, always holding the attention of his audience, and is a great
traveler, having traveled for many years in different parts of the globe.”
Ad: “J.R. MULVEY 1360 W. 74th St. Jobbing Confectioner”
Page 97, 142 (Ad)

MURBACH
The MURBACH COMPANY
Baltimore, Maryland
Ad: “Have you ever tasted one of Murbach’s Whipped Creams? (drawing of box of chocolates)
If you have, you know why they are the GREATEST CHOCOLATE SPECIALTY in the world. Let us
mail you a sample. THE MURBACH COMPANY, Baltimore, Maryland.”
Page 158 (Ad)

MURPHY
WAYMAN & MURPHY
Manufacturers and Dealers in Carriages, Wagons and Trucks
Randolph & Sangamon Streets
Repairing, Painting We make a specialty of Mfg. Candy Wagons
Page 72

MURPHY, Joseph B.(Doctor)
Bought out SASSAMAN’S interest in SASSAMAN & MOSS and, partnered with Walter MOSS, firm
became MOSS & MURPHY at 200 Clark Street 1872
Bought out MOSS’ interest and partnered with Charles SASSAMAN in SASSAMAN & MURPHY at 200
Clark Street 1873
Murphy’s share bought out by John HUTCHINSON 1879
Sold out to Walter MOSS and returned to old profession (Doctor?) 1877
Page 15, 59

MYERS, Joseph
(See also MEYER, Joseph per all pages but 189)
Sergeant at Arms, Chicago Jobbing Confectioners’ Association “…is a well known figure among
the jobbers and is by no means a quiet one, and is about the heaviest man in the business”
1905
Ad: “JOE MEYER, 845 W. Taylor St. Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 55 (Photo), 95, 158 (Ad), 189
NATHAN BROS.
Begins manufacturing at 434 South Halsted 1902
Page 119

NATHAN, M.
M. NATHAN & CO.
Bought out H. ALEXANDER & CO., were burned out and did not resume business about 1871
Page 41

NATIONAL CANDY CO.
Bought out GEORGE & CHARLES at 108 and 110 West Adams Street
Absorbed the plants of: TORMOEHLEN & BRO. at 106 West Adams, J.K. FARLEY MFG. CO at 104
East Indiana, and LYON & CO. at 51 South Union Street in 1903
Affiliated with (or bought out) the J. K. FARLEY FACTORY at 118 to 130 East Superior Street
1905
Page 43, 44 (Ad), 97, 121

NATIONAL LICORICE COMPANY
Ad: “Compliments of NATIONAL LICORICE COMPANY, 106-116 John Street, Brooklyn, N.Y.
Young and Smylies Pure Stick Licorice, “ACME” Licorice Pellets”
Page 92

NEEMES, John C.
Born in Poultney, Vermont 1839
Emigrated to Chicago 1856
Manager of C. W. SANFORD’s business at 38 Randolph Street (“…under his able management the
business grew steadily”) 1865
On SANFORD’S death, partnered with Geo. H. Brooks in BROOKS & NEEMES January 1, 1871
Burned out October 9, 1871
Resumed business at Lake and Peoria Streets 1871
Did a very large business and moved to 28 and 32 Michigan Ave January 1, 1874
Sole Owner of JOHN NEEMES & CO. when BROOKS retires January 1, 1878
Joined by partners Mark S. VANDUZEN and William LIEMERT 1878 – January 1, 1892
Employed Frank PILGRIM 1893 – 1896
Edward F. HOLMES buys VANDUZEN and LIEMERT’S interest.
Firm fails January 10, 1897
Accepted the Chicago agency for E. GREENFIELD’S SON & CO. of New York in February 1897
Died “…of cancer of the stomach, after a lingering illness of several months, leaving a
wife and four children” March 16, 1902
Children: Mrs. John V. BERG, John C. NEEMES, Jr., Mrs. John E. COLEMAN, Mrs. Samuel E.
HIBBEN
“…a pioneer in the confectionery business and was known throughout the United States.”
Page 13, 29, 31, 37

NEUBAUER, R
Sold jobbing business to Martin SCHROEDER 1894
Page 109

NEWHALL, F.
Began manufacturing candy at 9 Clark Street 1854
Page 13

NEWHALL, H.
Began manufacturing candy at 75 Randolph Street 1854
Page 13

NOBLE, Frank R.
Began jobbing in October 1888
Was at one time Secretary of the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association
Sold out his business to become a park policeman
Page 87

NORRIS, D. W.
Began manufacturing chewing gum 1894
Now does a large and profitable business 1905
Ad: “NORRIS’ BLUE RIBBON CHEWING GUM
(Photo of NORRIS) BEWARE OF IMITATIONS. It’s all the rage. Nothing has ever been produced
to equal or compare with it. It aids digestion, sweetens the breath, preserves the teeth,
clears the voice and quiets the nerves. Recommended by all singers and public speakers to
be the best and purest in the market. Try it you will be pleased. BLUE RIBBON CHEWING
GUM. Made in five flavors: Pepsin, Min, Blood Orange, Licorice, Cinnamon. (Four stanza
poem, the first letters of which spell out “Use Blue Ribbon Gum”) Use Blue Ribbon Gum, its
merits try, Strictly pure, none better you can buy, Everywhere today this favorite brand is
seen. — Blue Ribbon, monarch reigns supreme, Look where you will, go where you may,
Unequal for flavor Blue Ribbon is today Envy of competitors, by D. W. Norris sold —
Remember Blue Ribbon is worth its weight in gold, In all first class stores, do not forget,
Best and largest, Blue Ribbon Gum you can get, Boys’ delight, ladies friend, mankind’s
guide, Old and young chewers it has satisfied, No grit or dirt in Blue Ribbon Gum you’ll
find. — Get the best, bear D. W. Norris’ Gum in mind, Upon uniform quality you always
can rely, Make up your mind, Blue Ribbon is the Gum to buy. THE BEST GUM ON EARTH. Sold in
Restaurants and Stores Everywhere. Made only by D.W. Norris Milwaukee and Chicago.”
Two page advertisement with poem and photo
Pages 60 – 61 (Ad/Photo of Norris), 111

OATMAN, E. J.
OATMAN, F. G.
Began manufacturing candy as OATMAN BROS. PASTE & CARAMEL CO., at 204 Illinois 1897
Purchased the FRYE CARAMEL COMPANY at 207 Illinois Street “under execution” from George V.
FRYE January 18, 1897
“There was considerable litigation over the matter and pending a decision the plant was
closed down. The parties who were interested in the controversy and who were stockholders
were George V. FRYE, E. J. OATMAN, F. G. OATMAN, Frederick BROWNING and George B. SCRIPPS.
Page 89, 113

ODLIN
WICHELMANN & ODLIN
Started manufacturing homemade candies and popcorn at 148 Dearborn Street.
Moved to 273 Madison Street in 1868
Burnt out in Great Fire October 9, 1871
Page 35

OEHLER, Gustav A.
(Note on page 111 listed as Gustav O. Oehler, in ad on page 158, listed as Gustav A.).
Began in the jobbing trade October 1 1894
Has quite a good business 1905
Ad: “G. A. OEHLER, Jobbing Confectioner, 3511-3513 S. Paulina Street”
Resides at: 3511 South Paulina Street
Page 111, 158 (Ad)

OGDEN SHOEING SHOP
STOKES, J.
Ad: “I warrant good, honest work, OGDEN SHOEING SHOP, J. STOKES, Practical Horseshoes, All
diseases of the feet successfully treated, 53 Ogden Ave., Near Polk St.”
Page 170 (Ad)

OLIVER, Lucien S.
Started as jobber, but didn’t remain long in business (late 1800’s)
Page 51

OLSON, L.
Bought out O. ARVOLDT’S jobbing business
L. OLSON, 1620 North Humboldt Street, started in business succeeding O. ARVOLDT in March
1904
Ad: “Wholesale Confectioner, 1620 Humboldt Street” 1905
Page 80 (Ad), 123, 125

The ORIENTAL MANUFACTURING CO.
Ad: “V. G. GURINIAN, Pres. And Treas.; A. B. GURINIAN, Secy, THE ORIENTAL MANUFACTURING
CO., Established 1889, CONFECTIONERS, Makers of Specialties (12 listed) Send for samples
and quotations. 198-200 South Center Avenue, Chicago.”
Emigrated from Constantinople, Turkey to Chicago May 1, 1892
Partnered with V. MUGGERDITIAN to manufacture Fig paste and other Turkish Candies.
“Started in one small room 20 X 40 Feet at 207 South Canal Street and in March 1896 was
incorporated as the ORIENTAL MANUFACTURING CO.”
Moved to 249 South Jefferson Street 1897
Moved to 206 Illinois Street 1899
Moved to 198 and 200 South Center Avenue with plant of 12,000 square feet 1902
Page 99, 167 (Ad)

OWENS, Matt
Bought out business of Simon MULVANEY 1878
Sold out to M. C. KRETCHMER
Restarted own business still continuing in 1905
Page 51

PAGE, Albert
(See Milton E. PAGE, Sr., father)

PAGE, Francis Virginia
(See Milton E. PAGE, Sr., father)

PAGE, Laura O.
(See Milton E. PAGE, Sr., father)

PAGE, Milton E. Sr.
Son of Samuel Page, an early Chicago settler, who arrived in 1833 from Maine, dying in 1849
PAGE, Mrs. Milton E. (Dora St. GEORGE)
Children: Milton E. PAGE, Jr., Walter Henry, Albert G., Laura O., and Francis Virginia.
Milton E. born in Maine in 1832
Originally carpenter
Married Dora ST. GEORGE of Milwaukee 1868
Joined wife’s successful retail confectionery trade at 180 Clark Street, southwest corner
of Monroe (where Ft. Dearborn building now stands (“now” = 1905)) 1864
Opened factory at 117 South Water street continuing retail trade at 180 Clark St. 1866
Gave up retail to devote time to manufacturing 1869
Factory burned 1867 and restarted immediately at same locale as M. E. PAGE & CO. (no
partner)
Moved to 23, 33, 24 Michigan Ave. and partnered with Rufus P. PATTISON January 1, 1869
Burned out second time May 1871
Rebuilt and were burned out again in “Great Fire” October 9, 1871
Resumed business at 55 South Green Street until January 1, 1874
Moved to 211 and 213 East Lake Street January 1, 1874
Dora ST. GEORGE Page died January 25, 1885 leaving five children: Milton E. PAGE, Jr.,
Walter Henry, Albert G., Laura O., and Francis Virginia.
Employed I. F. DICKSON prior to 1887
Another fire damages new factory and business failed Summer 1890
Formed a stock company, M. E. Page Confectionery Company August 18, 1890
“In the meantime, Mr. Page had withdrawn considerable of his captial to invest in green
houses which he was interested in on the northwest side and this business not proving
profitable he lost most of his frotune, which at one time was quite large. Mr. Page had no
connection to the new corporation except in name.”
Officers of new company: Josiah CRATTY, President; Thos. J. BOLGER, Vice President; Stanley
W. DAVIS, Secretary; and John J. ZIMMERMAN, Treasurer
Stock Company failed August 17, 1897
Milton E. Page, 73, running a plantation opposite Ft. Morgan, Alabama 1905
Page 14 (Photo), 31, 33, 85

PAGE, O.
Emigrated from Boston, where he had been in confectionery trade, to Chicago 1856
“Mr. Page brought out some new things, among them being what was known as pipe and star
candy. This candy was made in the form of pipes and stars with a hole through the stick,
was hard and brittle and flavored with peppermint, wintergreen and cloves. It met with a
ready sale from the start.”
Partnered with O.G.B. SLEEPER in O. PAGE & CO. in a store at 17 Clark Street under St.
Charles Hotel and a factory in alley at the rear of McVicker’s theater 1856
J. B. HENNIGAN acted as foreman
Sold out to J. B. HENNIGAN Fall 1858
Page 21, 23

PAGE, Walter Henry
(See Milton E. Page, Sr., father)

PAGE, Samuel
(See Milton E. Page, son)

PAN CONFECTION COMPANY
225-227 Kinzie
Began as wholesale and manufacturing concern 1892
Page 95

PAPE, C.
Started in business at 4133 Forrest Avenue in April 1870
Sold out tools and stock to William Tormoehlen in October 1877
Page 43

PAPPENTHEIN, A.
Bought out jobbing business of Frank GLEMBOW 1894
Page 107

PARMAN, F. C.
(See also PARMAN, John E., may be brothers?)
Bought out wagons of Charles H. HARRINGTON of HARRINGTON & CO. August 12, 1893
Sold out to George Walter 1894
Ad: “PARMAN BROS. & ZECH, 2915-17 North Hermitage Avenue, Ravenswood, Illinois. Jobbers of
all the Better Makes of Chocolates and High Grade Candies”
Page 80 (Ad), 97, 109

PARMAN, John E.
(See also PARMAN, F. C., may be brothers?)
PARMAN, Mrs. John E., member of the Ladies Auxiliary of Chicago Jobbing Confectioners
Association when first formed March 1, 1905
“Succeeded Frederick HOFFMAN in the jobbing business…” September 1894
“Now of the firm PARMAN BROS. & ZECH, 2719 North Hermitage Street” (note: address in ad is
2915-17 page 80) 1905
Ad: “PARMAN BROS. & ZECH, 2915-17 North Hermitage Avenue, Ravenswood, Illinois. Jobbers of
all the Better Makes of Chocolates and High Grade Candies” 1905
Bought out jobbing business of Frederick HOFFMAN Sept. 1, 1895
“now of the firm PARMAN BROS. and ZECH, 1719 North Hermitage Avenue.”
Page 78 (Mrs. PARMAN Group Photo), 80 (Ad), 89, 109, 123, 125

PATTISON, Rufus
Purchased an interest in firm of M. E. PAGE & CO. at 20, 22, and 24 Michigan Avenue January
1, 1869
Burned out May 1871
Immediately rebuilt and burned out for third time in Great Fire of October 9, 1871
Resumed business at 55 South Green Street until January 1, 1874
Moved to 211 and 213 East Lake Street January 1, 1874
Seriously damaged by fire Summer 1890
Business failed shortly thereafter
Page 31, 33

PECKHAM, O. H.
O. H. PECKHAM & CO. St. Louis, Mo.
Employed Frank FIELD of Chicago as foreman until his death 1883 – 1895
Page 65

PELLES, Henry L.
Bought jobbers route from J. Merton CASE March 1881 and still in business 1905
Financial Secretary, Chicago Jobbing Confectioners’ Association and member of the finance
committee in charge of the national convention, “…is an old jobber, starting in business in
March 1881, who has been repeatedly elected to the office that he holds. He is one of the
best story-tellers in the entire body and is of very pleasing personality. Mr. Pelles is
commonly known as “Shorty” by his friends which are numerous.” 1905
Ad: “H. L. PELLES, Phone Austin 1613, 5819 Chicago Ave. Wholesale Confectioner”
Residence: 5819 Chicago Avenue 1905
Page 46 (Photo), 67, 75, 95, 134, 187

PEO, Frank R.
Began manufacturing at 5147 Prairie Avenue in March 1903
Ad: “FRANK R. PEO, Jobbing Confectioner, 5147 Prairie Avenue”
Page 121, 134 (Ad)

PEOPLES CANDY CO.
Began manufacturing at 171 West Adams in 1904
Employed Edward H. SCANLAN, Jr., to head city sales May 1888
Page 81, 123

PEOPLES, Frank
Ran a wagon for a few months for Wesley BEECHER (might also be BEECHLER?)
Went into business for himself fall of 1863 -1900
“Quite prominent as a jobber and did a good business.”
First Treasurer of the Confectionery Agents’ Union during its existence 1880
Died November 20, 1900
Page 25, 27, 73

PETERMICHEL,
PETERMICHEL & KIRCHMAN began jobbing candies
KIRCHMAN bought out PETERMICHEL moving to Twelfth Street and Paulina (late 1890’s?)
Page 75

PETERSEN, John
Bought out jobbers business of George O. Evans September 1899
416 West Fifty-First Place
Ad: ” JOHN PETERSEN 416 W. 51st Place Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 117, 142 (Ad)

PETERSON
GREEN & PETERSON
Manufactured candies at 206 South Desplaines Street (early 1890’s?)
Did not remain in business long
Page 97

PETERSON, William
Sold confectionery jobber business to H. J. BENNING April 5, 1894
Page 107

PFEIFFER
BELL & PFEIFFER
With Jonas N. BELL began manufacturing at 40 Fifth Avenue and 612 West Madison in 1901
Page 83, 119

PHILLIPS, Peter
Started out with a wagon jobbing confectionery products 1874
Continued in business intermittently until the time of his death 1904
“Mr. Philips was subject to attack of eye troubles, at which time he was totally blind.”
Page 55

PHOTO Jewelry Mfg. Co.
Ad: “For ADVERTISING NOVELTIES, Badges, Buttons, Celluloid Boxes, for Confections — Write
— PHOTO JEWELRY MFG. CO. 464 Carroll Ave., Chicago”
Page 186 (Ad)

PILGRIM, Frank
Born in Holland 1835
Emigrated at early age initially settling in Detroit, Mich., where he partnered with his
brother in candy manufacturing.
“Becoming impressed with the possibilities in Chicago,” moved to Chicago and opened factory
at 636 West Lake Street 1865
Partnered with V. VAN MARECK, a fellow countryman, renamed firm PILGRIM & VAN MARECK and
moved to 134 West Randolph Street January 1, 1868
When VAN MARECK retired, moved business to 256 Milwaukee Ave. 1870 – May 1, 1875
Sold out to and went to work for John KRANZ May 1, 1875
Entered employ of Albert CURETON Fall 1888 – 1893
Employed by C. NEEMES & CO. 1893 – 1896
“…a well known figure in the confectionery trade for a number of years. During his
connection with the trade he put upon the market a number of novelties, the most successful
of which was Pilgrim’s Chewing Candy, which had a very large sale at one time.”
Retired 1896
Page 22 (Photo), 35, 37

PIKE, Alpheus H.
Employed by Robert H. FISH as city salesman
Went into jobbing business shortly afterward
First Vice President of the Confectionery Agents’ Union
Vice President Jobbing Confectioners’ Association
“Mr. Pike was a man that always pushed himself forward to assist in anything that was
likely to benefit the business, and was always a consistent opponent of everything that was
unfair.”
Died suddenly in 1893
Page 41, 73

PIRIE
CARSON, PIRIE & CO. purchases lease for building at southeast corner of Aberdeen and
Madison Street, paying Robert H. FISH a bonus of $2500 Winter of 1870
Page 33

PLACK
Sold out jobbing business at 1998 Wilcox Avenue to J. F. KROELL April 18, 1904
Page 125

PLATTNER, Fred J.
Bought out jobbing business of J. K. GUNNING 1894
Page 107

PLOOG, Rheinhold
Jobber who died in 1896
Page 79

PLOTTKE, John
Began jobbing “this year”
Runaway horse so damages wagon that he goes out of business 1876
Page 57

PLOWS
Began as PLOWS & CO. a wholesale and manufacturing company at 346 Wabash in 1893
Succeeded by PLOWS MFG. CO. at same address in 1903
Page 99, 121

POOLEY
SPIRRO POOLEY
26 North Clark
Began as wholesale and manufacturing concern 1892
Page 95

PUZZO
PUZZO & BACCIGALUPI
Began manufacturing cocoanut goods on Chicago Avenue near Wells Street
Burned out in Great Fire
Resumed and did some business until 1873
Page 47

PYCKE
Partnered with R. W. DYBALL, formerly of Chicago, as PYCKE BROS. & DYBALL in Omaha,
Nebraska 1883
Page 53

QUAKER CITY CHOCOLATE & CONFECTIONERY CO.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Ad: “Try out Winners (lists candy selection and prices) Our sparkling gloss hard goods are
the best on earth (lists various hard candy flavors)”
Page 126 (Ad)

RADERMACHER, L. R.
Had been connected with bakery business and added a large stock of candy and materially
incrased his sales 1893
His trade was to a large extent in the suburbs
Owing to ill health sold out and moved to Los Angeles, California, where he is in jobbing
business at 233 West Twenty-eighth Street 1905
Page 103

RAKOW, Henry F.
Ad: “607 W. Superior St. Wholesale confectioner”
Page 135 (Ad)

RALSTON, M. J.
2300 Wilcox Avenue
Bought out jobbing business from S. F. MILLER April 18, 1904
(Note: MILLER described as “D.F.” rather than “S. F.” on page 125)
Ad: “M. J. RALSTON 2300 Wilcox Avenue, Confectioner”
Page 113, 125, 182 (Ad)

RECHTMEYER, A
Began jobbing business in April (late 1880’s?)
Sold out to Henry SCHUMACHER in March 1888
Page 83, 89

RECHTMEYER, H.
Began jobbing business in September
Sold out his route to William HAGEMEISTER to go into real estate Feb. 3, 1886
Page 81, 83

REED, Eugene O.
EUGENE O. READ COMPANY
Began the manufacturing of butterscotch specialties at 508 Nelson Street 1896
Moved to Wellington and Clybourn Avenues
Eugene O. REED is the Senior partner
Past President Jobbing Confectioners’ Association
Current President National Jobbing Confectioners’ Association 1905
Chairman Transportation Committee
Mrs. Eugene O. Reed was member of the Ladies Auxiliary of the Chicago Jobbing
Confectioners’ Association when first formed March 1, 1905
“During the short time he has been in business, he has done more to promote harmony than
any other man in the confectionery trade, and is well known all over the United States.”
Ad: “We have often heard it stated that there is a sucker born every minute, and while we
do not admit this, we are not in a position to say that thre is no truth in it. If this
statement is true, it means that 1440 suckers enter this world of sorrow every day, or at
the rate of about 500,000 per year, and under these circumstances, we see how it is
possible for a man to sell and continue selling an article with little or no merit,
provided he sees a new on each time.
We have an article of merit and are looking for a new trade, but we can offer you as
references any one who ever handled our “REED’S BUTTER SCOTCH PATTIES.” In regard to this
article, we say without fear of contradiction that it is the nicest and most convenient
size on the market, that it will come up with the requirements of any Food Law of any State
or Country, and that it is a Butter Scotch pure and simple, as it contains no foreign
flavoring or coloring matter whatever. It is packed only in air-tight and dust-proof glass
and tine packages, and is put on the market in the fall as soon as the weather is cool
enough, and we guarantee it in every way through the season until the following May. Ask
any one who has ever handled or eaten this popular confection, and order them through your
jobber and give them a trial. Satisfaction guaranteed. When you order be sure you ask for
“REED’S BUTTER SCOTCH PATTIES.” Eugene O. REED Company, (Inc.) Chicago.”
Page 66 (Photo), 111, 125, 166 (Ad)

REED, James
Acquired interest of Edward MORAN and partnered with S. R. JEFFERSON in JEFFERSON & REED at
159 South Clark Street 1866
Partnered with MORGAN and moved business to 48 West Randolph Street 1868
Business closed 1869
Page 35

REIDENBACH, William
Bought out jobbing business of Otto W. LOERCKE 1894
(Could also be same person as Wilhelm REIDERBACH – page 113?)
Page 107

REIDERBACH, Wilhelm
(Could also be same person as William REIDENBACH on page 107?)
Sold jobbing business to August P. MUELLER September 1, 1896
Page 113

REYNOLDS
KERR & REYNOLDS
70 North Clark Street
Page 13

RITTERBUSCH, William H.
Began jobbing in late 1880’s and still in business in 1905
Page 85

ROBERTS, M. L.
Employed by R. H. FISH
Bought out FISH’S horse and wagon route and continued business until 1884
Sold out to L. H. KESSLER 1884
Page 57

ROESCHMANN & JONANOVICH
Began manufacturing at 171 South Desplaines 1901
Page 119

ROKOW, Henry F
Bought out jobbing business of August SCHUMANN November, 1900
607 West Superior Street
On Reception Committee of Convention (Jobbing Confectioners’ Association) 1905
Page 117

ROMINGER
SCHMAUS & ROMINGER
Started small business at 113 Blue Island Avenue and closed same year
Page 63

RORABACK
FOWLER & RORABACK renamed FOWLER & STEIN at 102 West Adams in 1903
Page 121

ROSCOUTEN, Robert
Began in jobbing business 1894
“…now attending to the city department of WILLIAMS & HOFFMAN” 1905
Page 111

ROSS. Henry
Began jobbing business in 1894
Page 109

ROTH, C.
Began manufacturing at 83 Blue Island Avenue May 1873
Bought out by Peter WEBER
Page 53

ROTH, Frank
Assumed business of L. LOBETHAL (Note: spelled “LOBENTHAL” on page 97) who died August 3,
1892
Resides at 229 Johnson Avenue 1905
Page 79, 97

ROTTGEN, H. H.
An ex-policeman, began in the jobbing trade in May 1894
Well known in the trade while he remained in business
Page 107

RUBEL, I. A.
RUBEL, B. F.
G. ALLEGRETTI partnered with I.A. RUBEL and B. F. RUBEL and changed name of company at 179
State Street from ALLEGRETTI & CO. to ALLEGRETTI & RUBEL 1899
RUBEL & ALLEGRETTI opened a wholesale department at 53 Lake Street 1901
Page 115, 119

RUECKHEIM BROS.
F. W. and Louis RUECKHEIM
(See also Herman RUECKHEIM, a possible relation?)
Brothers, F. W. and Louis, began manufacturing “in a humble way as manufacturers of popcorn
products” 1871
Manufactured candy only when they employed Cal BOYNTON, “an expert in inventing new and
salable confections” 1875
Had 4 wagons on the road and “quite a business” with wagon jobbers 1875
Opened factory at 98 Van Buren Street under the name of F.W. RUECKHEIM & BRO.
Moved to larger quarters at West Van Buren, near Canal 1880
Burned out 1885
Employed M. CAPP as city salesman about 1885
Restarted factory at 266 and 268 South Clinton Street 1886
Moved to 261 and 265 South Desplaines Street and brought out “Cracker Jack” 1895
Brought out their favorite confection, “Nut Cracker Jack, ” January 1897
Needing more space, rented store at 316 South Clinton Street 1897
Partnered with Paul FERNALD, who retired next year 1898
Partnered with Henry G. ECSTEIN and became RUECKHEIM BROS. & ECKSTEIN in 1903
Erected mammoth new factory at northwest corner of Peoria and Harrison 1904
“The Rueckheim brothers are probably as widely known throughout the United States as any
persons connected with the confectionery business in Chicago and while today their business
is a vast one, their beginning was quite small and it was only their persistent and hard
work, combined with the exceptional quality of the goods which they have always
manufactured, that has placed them where they are today.
F. W. Rueckheim and his brother, Louis, began business in a humble way as
manufacturers of pop corn products in 1871. They did not manufacture candy until about
1875, when they were so fortunate as to secure the services of Cal BOYNTON, who was an
expert in inventing new and salable confections. In 1875, they had four wagons on the road
and had quite a business, as well, with the wagon jobbers. In 1879 they opened a factory
at 98 Van Buren Street under the firm name of F. W. RUECKHEIM & BROS.. In 1880 their
business had so increased that larger quarters became a necessity, and accordingly they
moved to West Van Buren Street, near Canal, and were burned out there in 1885. In 1886 the
factory was restarted at 266 and 268 South Clinton Street. In 1895 they moved to 261 and
265 South Desplaines street and in this year they brought out their favorite confection,
“Cracker Jack,” which today is probably the greatest selling pop corn product in the world.
In January 1897, they brought out the little brother to “Cracker Jack,” known as “Nut
Cracker Jack.”
Ad: (Photo of young girl pointing to box of “Cracker Jack” and text that reads? “Though
many seek to imitate, With style and name of close relate, The taste is what all others
lack — It’s only found in “Cracker Jack.” RUECKHEIM BROS. & ECKSTEIN, Cracker jack and
Candy Makers, Chicago, USA. A full line of staple goods, chocolates, penny goods and pail
specialties. Write for samples and prices.”
Page 24 (Ad), 49, 51, 79, 121, 123

RUECKHEIM, Herman
(See also Louis and F. W. RUECKHEIM, possible relations?)
Began manufacturing at 685 Forty-third Street 1900
Page 117

RUMSFELT, D.
RUMSFELT, John
Was jobber from July 1, 1889 to October 5, 1896
His brother, John RUMSFELT, was also in the business from December 1, 1889 to May 1, 1892
Page 89

RUNKEL
RUNKEL BROTHERS
Ad: “RUNKEL BROTHERS Crème de Milk Chocolate, A Delicious Confection, Best 5 cent Package
Made. Write for sample and price.”
Page 96 (Ad)

RUPPERT. J
Bought a jobbing business from Max KIRCHMAN 1894
Page 109

RUSH, Andy
Ad: “ANDY RUSH Wines, Liquors and Cigars. 151 W. Jackson Boulevard, Bet. Halsted and
Desplaines, Chicago”
Page 134 (Ad)

RUSSELL BROTHERS
“Manufactured a few kinds of candy, but did not remain long in business and had several
locations in the few months of the firm’s existence.” (1890’s?)
Page 91

SACHER, Paul
Began manufacturing at 110 Erie in 1901
Page 119

SAFFORD, Henry K.
Manufacturer at 47 Clark Street
Page 25

SAGE, Henry W.
Conducted both a jobbing and manufacturing business selling out in 1894
Started manufacturing in Terre Haute, Indiana, where still located 1905
Page 95

SANDERSON, D. W.
Began a factory at 301 West Madison Street 1899
Moved to Ft. Dodge, Iowa shortly after
Page 117

SANFORD, C. W.
Native of Ottawa, Illinois, where “he carried on quite a business as a
manufacturer…shipping his product to all the small towns of Illinois and Missouri. At this
time competition was very keen in the candy business.” Mr. Sanford soon found he was
losing trade to Chicago merchants, as the dealers in small towns preferred to make
occasional trips to Chicago to buy their goods, rather than purchase them from a
manufacturer in a small town like Ottawa. In the early spring of 1863, he therefore
packed up his stock on hand, his kettles and tools and shipped them to Chicago.” 1863
Relocated to Chicago Spring of 1863
179 Randolph Street 1863
Employed Charles Frederick GUNTHER as traveling salesman
38 Randolph Street May 1, 1865
Employed John C. NEEMES as manager
Employed Adolph GEORG 1864 near Briggs House and new building erected for steam powered
candy factory and store “largest establishment up to that time which had been erected for
candy-making purposes”
First Chicago candy manufacturer to use steam power and introduced terra alba into goods.
Died Fall of 1870
Business assumed by BROOKS & NEEMES
Page 17, 27, 29, 37

SASSAMAN, Charles
Partnered with Francis W. HICKMAN as SASSAMAN & HICKMAN manufacturing candy at 47 Randolph
Street “and made quite a success for a few years” early 1854
Employed William LEIMERT from Philadelphia as firm foreman May 1857
“After LEIMERT was hired as foreman the firm began to turn out new goods. Leimert brought
with him from Philadelphia many new ideas and was the first in Chicago to make cococanut
(sic) cakes, cream goods and bon-bons. Nothing but hard goods were made in Chicago prior
to this time and the majority of manufactures was stick candy.”
Moved to 63 Randolph Street where he employed C. H. MEYER 1858
HICKMAN sold out to Geo. BROOKS and name changed to SASSAMAN & BROOKS 1859
BROOKS retires and SASSAMAN moves to 39 Randolph Street 1861
Sold out to S. R. Jefferson and Edward Moran 1865
SASSAMAN partners with Walter MOSS as SASSAMAN & MOSS and moves to 200 Clark Street 1865
Sold out interest to J. D. MURPHY who partners with Walter MOSS as MOSS & MURPHY1875
Buys out MOSS’ share and re-partners with MURPHY in SASSAMAN & MURPHY at 200 Clark Street
1873
Partners with John HUTCHINSON who bought out Murphy and renames firm SASSAMAN & HUTCHINSON
1879
Bought out by HUTCHINSON
Partners with Walter MOSS and then buys out his interest 1880
Page 13, 15, 59

SASSO, Paul
Began jobbing in February (late 1880’s?)
Continued until his death
William Weis succeeded him in business on May 19, 1890
Page 85, 91

SAUL, John
Began manufacturing at northwest corner of Green and West Lake Streets with two wagons on
the road
Remained in business until July 1, 1875
Went to Sacramento, California to continue business
Page 45

SAUMWEBER, George
Began jobbing business in 1894
Sold wagon to Luther COUMBE 1894
Sold out in 1903
Page 107, 109

SCANLAN, Edward H.
(Relative of Transcriber – Please contact TCALLANET@aol.com for more information and photos
– Note: Edward H., Mortimer and John F. Scanlan were brothers, who emigrated from
Castlemahon (Mahoonagh), New Castle West, Limerick, with their widowed mother, Katherine
Roche Scanlan (Mrs. Mortimer Scanlan) in 1848-50 to Chicago. Edward H. Scanlan, Jr., was
son of Edward H. Sr. — brother of Frank Thomas Scanlan, my husband’s grandfather.)
Clerked for J. P. HETH Clinton Street near Madison 1854
Opened factory at 109 North LaSalle Street 1855
Added retail store 18 South Clark Street 1858
Moved Factory to 172 North Wells Street 1860
Partnered with P. L. GARRITY in “THE GREAT WESTERN CANDY FACTORY” 1861
Moved office and factory to 47 State Street 1864
Dissolved GARRITY partnership and joined brothers, Michael and Mortimer, in SCANLAN & BROS.
at 138 South Water Street 1866
Mortimer SCANLAN retires and John SCANLAN joins Edward and Michael in SCANLAN & BROS. 1866
Partners with P. L. GARRITY again at 23 Lake Street 1879-1880
Page 10 (photo), 17, 19

SCANLAN, Edward H. Jr.
(Relative of Transcriber – Please contact TCALLANET@AOL.COM for more information and
photos)
Son of Edward H. SCANLAN Sr. (who started manufacturing business in 1856)
Began manufacturing candy himself at 154 South Jefferson Street October 9, 1886
Continued manufacturing until May 22, 1888
Quit own business to take charge of city sales of BUNTE BROS. & SPOEHR May 22, 1886
Left BUNTE BROS. to take charge of city sales of PEOPLES CANDY COMPANY
Currently attends to jobbing trade at TORMOEHLEN BRANCH, NATIONAL CANDY CO.
Page 81

SCANLAN, John F.
(Relative of Transcriber – Please contact TCALLANET@AOL.COM for more information and
photos)
Partners with brothers, Michael and Mortimer SCANLAN, in firm of SCANLAN & BROS. at 138
South Water Street 1865
Mortimer retires, Edward SCANLAN joins firm 1866
Levi J. COLBURN joins firm which becomes SCANLAN BROS. & COLBURN at 78 State Street 1869
Edward SCANLAN retires and firm becomes SCANLAN & COLBURN 1870
Bought out by COLBURN 1871 and retired
Government office 854 Custom House

SCANLAN, Mortimer
(Relative of Transcriber – Please contact TCALLANET@AOL.COM for more information and
photos)
Partnered with brother, Michael SCANLAN, as SCANLAN & BRO. at 138 South Water Street 1861
Joined by brother, John F. SCANLAN, and became SCANLAN & BROS. 1865
Joined by brother Edward SCANLAN, Mortimer retired 1866
County Clerk’s Office
Page 17, 19

SCHAEFER, Henry E.
Bought out the business of George W. HAWKES in May 1, 1890
Past President of the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association, past representative to the
National Association,
Chairman Reception Committee, Chicago Jobbing Confectioners Association
Sold wagon and route to Michael Betz, 3258 Lowe Avenue March 7, 1904
Ad: “Henry E. SCHAEFER, 353 W. Huron St. Dealer in Fine Confectionery”
Resides at: 353 West Huron Street 1905
Page 71 (photo), 85, 91, 123. 155 (Ad)

SCHAFER, Charles
Began confectionery business at 204 Madison Street November. 1854
Partnered with Geo. H. BROOKS (Manufacturing) as CHAS. SCHAFER & CO at 158 Monroe Street
near La Salle 1858
Moved to 276 Clark Street when BROOKS retired 1858
Abandoned manufacturing and moved to 182 Clark Street (wholesale and retail business) 1863
119 Randolph Street (with R. W. Chappell) 1858
Retired early 1864
Page 13, 15

SCHAFER, Louis
Note: Also spelled SCHAFFER, Louis on page 119 and in Ad on page 135)
Bought out business of Julius GORDON, deceased, December 1, 1901
Ad: “L. SCHAFFER Wholesale Confectioner 60 Hastings St.”
61 Hastings Street
Page 65. 119, 135

SCHAFFER, Louis
Note: Also spelled SCHAFER, Louis on page 65)
Bought out business of Julius GORDON, deceased, December 1, 1901
Ad: “L. SCHAFFER Wholesale Confectioner 60 Hastings St.”
61 Hastings Street
Page 65. 119, 135

SCHENDORF, Henry C.
City salesman for DAWSON & SHIELDS
Began own business 1879-1880
Employed Det STEVENS as a salesman
Sold part of jobbing route to Det Stevens 1888
Became active politically and was elected alderman of the Twenty-second ward
Made a record in the council that the papers did not approve of.
President Jobbers Confectioners’ Association and one of the delegates that formed the
National Jobbing Confectioners’ Association 1894
Built up several routes and hired men to run them making a fair profit
Trustee of newly formed Confectioners’ Agents’ Union 1880
Finally lost heavily on his many ventures and gradually dropped out of the business
Sold a jobbing confectionery route to Charles WIGHT 1888
Sold route to J. J. SEEBER 1894
Now a farmer 1905
Page 69, 73, 81, 87, 73, 93, 107, 117

SCHEUER, Hans
Began jobbing business 1894
Page 109

SCHEWE, Otto
Began jobbing business 1894
Now in teaming business 1905
Page 107

SCHINDLER, Paul
Ad: “Paul SCHINDLER Saloon & Restaurant 73 W. Washington St. Near Jefferson”
Page 135 (Ad)

SCHMAUS, Henry
SCHMAUS & ROMINGER
Started a small factory at 113 Blue Island Avenue and closed business same year
Ran a wagon for about two years and gave up business (perhaps late 1800’s)
Page 63

SCHMEISER, J.
Began in jobbing business in 1902
Page 121

SCHMIDT, Peter H.
(Note: also spelled “SCHMITT” on page 63)
City Salesman for John KRANZ November 2, 1876 – July 1, 1881
Went into jobbing business for himself July 1, 1881
Treasurer of Jobbing Confectioners’ Association for several years.
Still in business residing at 1762 South Clifton Park Avenue 1905
Page 63, 93

SCHMITT, Peter H.
(Note also spelled “SCHMIDT” on page 93)
City Salesman for John KRANZ November 2, 1876 – July 1, 1881
Went into jobbing business for himself July 1, 1881
First Treasurer of newly formed Jobbing Confectioners’ Association for several
years.thereafter 1901
Still in business residing at 1762 South Clifton Park Avenue 1905
Ad: “Peter H. SCHMITT 762 S. Clifton Park Ave. Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 63, 93, 178 (Ad)

SCHOENHOFF, Ernest
Jobber who sold out to B. LAMA in 1894
Page 79, 109

SCHOTT, Adam
Employed as city salesman and drove wagon for John KRANZ 1876
Drove wagon for BUNTE BROS. & SPOEHR 1876
Sold horse, wagon and route to Fred Lindeman in Spring 1878
Partnered with Charles SCHWARZ as SCHWARZ & SCHOTT in Minneapolis 1880
Employed Hugo MEISSNER to handle wagon business
Page 55, 59, 61, 65

SCHOTTMILLER, William
Began jobbing business in March 1886
Sold out to William LANDGRAF in June 1893
Appointed Committee Member to create a national Jobbing Confectioners’ Association 1894
Page 83, 93, 103

SCHREIBER, Charles
(See also SCHREIBER, F. W.)
156 Seminary Avenue
Sold out to F.W. SCHREIBER
Page 115

SCHREIBER, F. W.
(See also SCHREIBER, Charles)
156 Seminary Avenue
Began Jobbing 1898
Succeeded Charles SCHREIBER
Page 115

SCHROEDER, Charles
Began business “…at about this time” (perhaps late 1880’s?)
Still in business at 524 North California Avenue 1905
Ad: “Chas. SCHROEDER Dealer in high grade Chocolates 524 N. California Avenue”
Page 79, 135 (Ad)

SCHROEDER, Martin
Twenty-fourth Place and Wentworth Avenue
Began jobbing 1893
Bought out R. NEUBAUER 1894
Sold out to Charles H. KLAUS February 2, 1905
Page 105, 109, 125

SCHUKRAFT, William
Ad: ” Wm. SCHUKRAFT & SONS Wagon Manufacturers and Repairers, 237-239-241 Fulton Street,
Chicago, Illinois”
Page 158 (Ad)

SCHULTZ, H.
H. SCHULTZ & CO. INC
Ad: “H. SCHULTZ & CO., Incorporated Established 1856, 6-16 Superior Street, Fine Candy
Boxes Our Specialty. We also make the best and most durable candy sample Cases and Trays
in the market.”
Page 110 (Ad – drawing of building)

SCHULZ, Julius H.
Employed as city salesman by John KRANZ 1874-1879
Partnered with Albert and Gustav BUNTE and formed BUNTE BROS. & SCHULZ which did a large
business at 184 Indiana Street
Withdrew from firm and formed new firm of BUCHHOLZ BROS. & SCHULZ October 1879
New firm soon dissolved
Purchased route from Albert F. STEGER August 1, 1883
Went into business for self and still is jobbing candies 1905
Ad: “Julius H. SCHULZ Wholesale Confectioner 817 Burling Street”
Page 53, 55, 77, 159 (Ad)

SCHUMACHER, Charles A.
Partnered with John Block under firm name of CHARLES A. SCHUMACHER & CO. at 623 Center
Avenue to manufacture candy Jan. 15, 1888
Moved to Eighteenth and Halsted Streets
Retired to go into ice cream business May 1, 1892
Page 87

SCHUMACHER, Henry
Bought out jobbing business of A. RECHTMEYER and runs wagons March 1888
Manufacturer of the “Foxy Grand Pa Lunch Bag” and Dealer in Fine Confectionery
507 West Huron Street, Chicago
Page 72 (Ad), 83, 89

SCHUMANN, August
Sold jobbing business to Henry F. ROKOW November 1900
Page 117

SCHUPPENHAUER, E. Jr.
Bought out the business of his father July 1892
Still in business 1905
Ad: “E. SCHUPPENHAUER, Jr. 658 Hirsh Street, Wholesale Confectioner”
Resides at 658 Hirsch Street 1905
Page 97, 186 (Ad)

SCHUSTER, A. F.
2257 Wilcox Avenue
Wholesale Confectioner
Page 80 (Ad)

SCHWARZ, Charles
Partnered with Charles A. SPOEHR as SPOEHR & SCHWARZ 1877
Went to Minneapolis and partnered with Adam SCHOTT 1880?
Page 55

SCHWEINFURTH, Frank
206 South Park Avenue
Started business in 1878?
Page 51

SCRIPPS, George B.
Described as one of “the parties who were interested in and who were stockholders” involved
in controversial sale by George V. FRYE “under execution” of the FRYE CARAMEL COMPANY at
207 Illinois Street to the OATMAN BROTHERS (E. J. OATMAN and F. G. OATMAN) which resulted
in “considerable litigation.” January 18, 1897
Page 89

SEBASTIAN, Frank A.
288 Elm Street
Bought out jobbing business of August KOESSLER March 20, 1905
Ad: “FRANK SEBASTIAN Jobbing Confectioner 288 Elm St.”
Page 67, 125, 135 (Ad)

SEEBER, John J.
(Note called J. H. SEEBER on page 107)
Began business as a jobber buying route from Henry SCHENDORF in August 1894
Still in business 1905
Sergeant at Arms of the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association
Member of the Entertainment Committee of the national convention
Ad: “John J. SEEBER, Wholesale Confectioner, 16 Francis Place”
Resides at: 16 Francis Place
Page 79, 107, 134 (Ad)

SEELEY, S. M.
Acted as an agent for a number of manufacturing confectioners 18 South Clark 1859-1860
Page 25

SEELIG, A. F.
Began jobbing business in 1898
Sold out in 1900
Page 115

SEELIG, Fred T.
Bought out jobbing business from Philip DREIBUS March 1890
Member of the Executive Committee of the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association 1905
Ad: “FRED SEELIG, 979 W. Chicago Avenue, Wholesale Confectioner”
979 West Chicago Avenue 1905
Page 77, 93, 134 (Ad)

SEILER, C.
Began jobbing in late 1880’s
Still in business 1905
Page 81

SELIX, J. A.
Began jobbing business at 35 North Center Avenue August 1 1903
Ad: J. A. SELIX, Wholesale Confectioner, 35 South Center Avenue
Page 114 (Ad), 123

SELL, Charles H.
Began bought out jobbing business of Henry WENDELBURG at 3928 Artesian Avenue 1902
Ad: “CHAS. H. SELL, Wholesale Confectioner, 3928 Artesian Avenue”
Page 121, 170 (Ad)

SELTMAN, F. H.
Ad: “F. H. SELTMAN, 1739 Briar Place, Jobbing Confectioner”
Page 155 (Ad)

SENDLINGER, Julius
Bought out S. R. LENZ’ jobbing business at 138 Sigel Street in June 1902
Ad: “Julius SENDLINGER, 138 Siegel St. Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 121, 134 (Ad)

SER-VIS MFG. CO.
Began manufacturing at 147 West Jackson 1901
Page 119,

SEVERINGHAUS & BEILFUSS CO., INC.
Printers, Lintotypers, Book Binders and Stationers
448 Milwaukee Ave
566-568 Ogden Ave.
Chicago
Page 72 (Ad)

SHEFCHEK, Joseph
(See also J. SHEFCHEEK and Ad on page 170 – could be same person?)
Started jobbing business in 1902
“…has served on many committees of the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association and has been
instrumental in getting up pleasant entertainments.”
Page 121

SHEFCHEEK, J.
(See also Joseph SHEFCHEK page 121 — could be same person)
Ad: “J. SHEFCHEEK, Jobbing Confectioner, Fancy Chocolates, Gums, etc. 6447 Union Avenue”
Page 170 (Ad)

SHEPHERD, C. L.
Began as confectioner 103 Randolph Street 1854
Later went into business with R. W. CHAPPELL at 119 Randolph Street
Page 13

SHERMAN, R. A.
(Note: Could be Roger A. SHERMAN)
Ad: “R. A. SHERMAN, Teacher of Dancing, Residence 3736 Forest Ave. (Member Chicago Jobbing
Confectioners’ Association) Weekly Assemblies at Oakley Hall, 926 Madison St. every
Wednesday and Saturday evening — Delegates to the convention are invited to attend while
in the city, and see a beautiful decorated Hall, exquisite music and all the Lemon Frappe
you can drink.”
Page 151 (Ad/Photo)

SHERMAN, Roger A.
Began in jobbing business 1902
Page 121

SHIELDS, Michael
Born in Chicago “…when the city was an overgrown village, built principally on stilts, and
has grown up with the city.”
Held more political offices than any other confectioner in Chicago — 16 years a member of
the Lincoln Park Board, and 1 1/2 years a member of the Library Boar, now (1905) “filling
second term of 6 years as member of the Board of Education, his term of office expiring
July 1, 1906″
Partnered with Martin DAWSON in DAWSON & SHIELDS at 17 Clark Street 1868-October 9, 1871
(Fire)
Moved to 83 South Green Street 1871
229 Randolph Street 1873-1875
43 and 45 State Street 1875 – 1878
Employed Frank DIBBLE and Frank HUNT as city salesmen
Bought out DAWSON’S interest in partnership 1878
Partners with John B. LANGAN as M. SHIELDS & CO. 1884
Moves to 51-55 South Jefferson Street, “…one of the lightest, if not the lightest, plants
used for a candy factory in Chicago, and installed entirely new machinery. The firm does a
large trade with the jobbers of Chicago.”
Employed E. G. GAVIN 1891
Ad: M. SHIELDS & CO. Manufacturing Confectioners Chicago — Michael SHIELDS and John B.
LANGAN — Makers of Fine Chocolates and Bon Bons Exclusive in Our Brands. Langanelli
Chocolates (Bitter-Sweet) and the United States Mint (Hand Made Lozenge) (other specialties
listed as well). Photo of Michael Shields “Founder of the Oldest Plant in Chicago 1869-
1905″
Page Cover page (Ad/Photo), 23, 51, 65, 95, 103

SHIELDS, Patrick
Began jobbing 1871
After a few years quit to run a hotel
Page 41

SHIELDS, W. N.
Had been a retailer manufacturing for his own trade
Began to sell to jobbers and ran a wagon
Did business in Chicago for several years, finally moving to Austin where he is still in
business 1905
Ad: The Austin Candy Kitchen, W. N. SHIELDS, Prop., Manufacturers and Retailers of
Everything in Candy, 117 North Park Avenue.”
Page 85, 170 (Ad)

SHOTWELL MFG. CO.
Ad: “CHECKERS” Pop Corn Confections, Manufactured exclusively by SHOTWELL MFG. CO>,
Chicago, “Always in Checker Board Packages””
Page 89 (Ad)

SIMM, Frank J.
(See also father, James C. SIMM)
Residence: 3618 Michigan Avenue 1904
Page 21

SIMM, Frank J.
(See James C. SIMM, father)

SIMM, James C.
(father of SIMM, Frank J.)
Born Oban, Scotland 1832
Emigrated to US 1842
92 West Randolph Street (manufacturer) as JAMES C. SIMM & CO. 1856
Moved to 34 West Randolph Street May 1861
Moved to 128 Dearborn Street May 1, 1862
Moved to 42 State Street where he had a “large lucrative business until burned out.” 1870-
October 9, 1871 (Great Fire)
694 Wabash Avenue (leased) 1871
56 State Street 56 State Street
“The first manufacturer to put really fine goods upon the Chicago market.”
Died at home of son, Frank J. Simm, at 3618 Michigan Avenue March 1904
Page 19, 21

SIMON, Joseph
Began jobbing business 1897
Sold out later on
Page 115

SLEEPER, O.G.B.
Partnered with O. Page in confectionery manufacturing business:
“Mr. Page brought out some new things, among them being what was known as pipe and star
candy. This candy was made in the form of pipes and stars with a hole through the stick,
was hard and brittle and flavored with peppermint, wintergreen and cloves. It met with a
ready sale from the start.”
Name of business was O. PAGE & CO. which had a store at 17 Clark Street under St. Charles
Hotel and a factory in alley at the rear of McVicker’s theater 1856
J. B. HENNIGAN acted as foreman
Sold out to J. B. HENNIGAN Fall 1858
Page 21, 23

SLYDER, Albert F.
Entered trade 1876 ?
Became head salesman for John KRANZ
Head salesman for C. F. GUNTHER’S
Began own business for a few months
Took position with BUNTE, FRANK & CO. for several years
Began manufacturing again in 1892 at 3203 Cottage Grove Avenue
After several years sold out the SLYDER CANDY CO. 1898
Page 57, 99. 115

SMITH, B. F.
SMITH & HALE
Partnered with Frank FIELD and Herbert WILLEY in opening bakery and candy factory at 108
West Washington Street, under name of FRANK FIELD & CO. 1878
Moved to 203 East Van Buren Street, corner of Franklin Street, dropped the bakery business
entirely, and confined themselves strictly to candy. 1880
Frank DIBBLE was in charge of the jobbing department 1882
FRANK FIELD & CO candy business went into receivership and bought out by SMITH & HALE 1883
SMITH & HALE failed shortly thereafter
Page 51, 63, 65

SMITH & PETERS
“Clover” (trademark) brand lozenges
“Medicated work a specialty”
Philadelphia
Page 76 (Ad)

SMITH, George W.
Bought out Leonard G. THOMAS and was a jobber of candies and did a stationery and news
business also (late 1890’s?)
Page 97

SMITH, H.R.
H.R. SMITH & BRO. began manufacturing at 1142 West Lake in 1901
Page 119

SMITH, Richard
Began butterscotch business as SMITH-BURNHAM CO. (not corporation) at 195 South Desplaines
Street March 1, 1890
Withdrew from firm April 1892
Opened a factory at 144 North Wood Street Fall 1892
Retired 1894
Page 87

SMITH, Washington
Bought out meat business of Leonard H. THOMAS
Page 59

SPEAR, Robert
On a transfer card from Robert Spear, B.M. COLE bought jobbing business at 3554 Cottage
Grove Avenue from Frank HUNT in November 1902
Page 121

SPIRRO
SPIRRO POOLEY
26 North Clark
Began as wholesale and manufacturing concern 1892
Page 95

SPOEHR, Charles A.
Worked for John KRANZ 1871 – 1876
Partners with Albert and Gustav BUNTE as BUNTE & BROS. & SPOEHR manufacturing candy at 416
State Street in 1876
Principal business selling to wagon jobbers and had two wagons of their own, driven by
Michael KOPP and Adam SCHOTT
Moved to 73 and 74 West Monroe Street March 1885
Employed about 200 employees 1896
Firm dissolved 1877
Partners with Charles SCHWARZ as SPOEHR & SCHWARZ
Repartners with BUNTE Brothers and moves to 83 Market Street
Joined by third Bunte brother, Ferdinand, March 1885
Ad: (Five pages) “BUNTE, SPOEHR & CO., CHICAGO, The leading confectioners — Just a Word
with you, please: We are such unassuming people we fear our modesty has prevented us from
proclaiming to the public, what our customers have known for many years, the fact that our
goods have been the standard of excellence for more than a quarter of a century. That old
adage, “by their work ye shall know them” seemed to be sufficient in former years, but in
these busy days, if we expect to retain the reputation we have held so long, and guarded so
jealously, we must not only make the best Goods, but must let the Dealer and Consumer know
that we are doing so. Lest we weary you, we will speak briefly, not of ourselves, but of a
few of our Candies that have not only helped to establish the reputation of which we are so
proud, but have aided Chicago in achieving the distinction of being the Great Candy Center.
(followed by three pages of candy descriptions) Always look for the Trade mark, and if it
is on the box you will know you are getting the best…..BUNTE, SPOEHR & CO. 139 and 141 West
Monroe St., Chicago. (Tradmark is white “B. S. & Co.” inside a black box, inside a black-
outline white circle
Page 55, 81, 200-205 (Ad)

STACK, August
Began jobbing business 1894
Page 109

STADTER, William J.
(Note: Also spelled STATTER on page 97)
Bought out M. CAPP in March 1892
Vice-President of the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association 1905
“with a great influence over his associates.”
Ad: “W. J. STADTER 207 24th Place Jobbing Confectioner”
Page 79, 97, 142 (Ad)

STATTER, William J.
(Note: Also spelled STADTER on page 79)
Bought out M. CAPP in March 1892
Vice-President of the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association 1905
“with a great influence over his associates.”
Ad: “W. J. STADTER 207 24th Place Jobbing Confectioner”
Page 79, 97, 142 (Ad)

STEGER, Albert F.
(Note on pages 34 (Photo), 93, and 159 (Ad) spelled STREGER; on page 93 middle initial
appears once as “F.” and once as “J.” On photo appears as “F.”)
1st Vice President, Chicago Jobbing Confectioners’ Association 1905
First Financial secretary of newly formed Jobbing Confectioners’ Association March 10,
1901
Bought out a route from Julius SCHULZ, August 1, 1883,
Vice President of DREIBUS-HEIM CO. 1899
Ad: “ALBERT STREGER 337 N. Paulina St., Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 34 (Photo), 77, 93, 159 (Ad)

STEIN, Arthur
FOWLER & STEIN at 102 West Adams replaces FOWLER & RORABACK as manufacturer in 1903
ARTHUR STEIN & CO. succeeded FOWLER & STEIN at 102 and 104 West Adams Street 1904
Arthur STEIN turns 10,000 square feet of space on West Adams to CAMERON & MARBACH May 1,
1904
Page 91, 121, 123

STERLING, I. B.
14 Clark Street 1854
Page 13

STERN, Leo
Of Cincinnati, Ohio
First President of newly formed National Jobbing Confectioners’ Association August 1895
Page 93

STEVENS, Det
Had been a salesman for Henry C. SCHENDORF
Bought out part of Henry C. SCHENDORF’S jobbing route in September of 1888
George O. EVANS bought out STEVENS’ business 1889
Died in 1890
Page 87, 117

STEVENS, George H.
Started the CONSOLIDATED CANDY COMPANY at 840 West Van Buren Street 1896
“…was arrested for using the mails for fraudulent purposes and was held in bonds of $2,000.
Stevens advertised for agents, offering to pay $75 per month salary and a commission, but
making each applicant purchase a case of samples at $4, which it is alleged was worth only
50 cents. He denied that he meditated any fraud, but admitted that he had received over
$8,800 from 2, 200 persons answering his advertisements, and of that number 270 canvassed
for orders, and he filled all sent to him.”
Page 111

STEVENS, Wm. R.
Bought out Wm. Chalmer’s interest in L.F. HAEHNLEN & CO. at 83 Michigan Ave. 1877
Sold out to Geo. H. BROOKS 1880
Page 21

ST. GEORGE, Dora
(See also (Mrs.) Milton E. PAGE)
Originally from Milwaukee
Married Milton E. PAGE in 1868
M. E. Page’s “…wife was an active and ambitious woman who had a retail confectionery store
at 180 Clark Street, the southwest corner of Monroe, where the Ft. Dearborn building now
stands. In 1864 she started to manufacture her own candies and succeeded so well that her
husband gave up his business as a carpenter and took up that of candy making.”
Died leaving children: Milton E. Page, Jr., Walter Henry, Albert G., Laura O. and Francis
Virginia January 24, 1885
Page 31, 33

STILLMAN, C. P.
Became partner with MCDONALD BROS. at 206 State Street, changing name to MCDONALD BROS. &
STILLMAN 1876
Page 53

STOKES, J.
OGDEN SHOEING SHOP
Ad: “I warrant good, honest work, OGDEN SHOEING SHOP, J. STOKES, Practical Horseshoer, All
diseases of the feet successfully treated, 53 Ogden Ave., Near Polk St.”
Page 170 (Ad)

STOLLE, Richard
Ad: “Richard STOLLE, 1678 W. 12th Street, Jobbing Confectioner”
Page 142

STOUT & MORAN
Randolph near Jefferson Street 1854
Page 13

STRAUS, Fred H. A.
Jobber in late 1880’s still active in 1905
Treasurer of DREIBUS-HEIM CO. 1899
Ad: “Fred H. STRAUS, 24 Florence Ave. Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 77, 79, 155 (Ad)

STREGER, Albert. F.
(Note on page 77 spelled STEGER; on page 93 middle initial appears once as “F.” and twice
as “J.” On photo appears as “F.”)
1st Vice President, Chicago Jobbing Confectioners’ Association 1905
First Financial secretary of newly formed Jobbing Confectioners’ Association March 10,
1901
Bought out a route from Julius SCHULZ, August 1, 1883,
Joins DREIBUS-HEIM CO. 1899
Vice President of DREIBUS-HEIM CO., “…prominent in association affairs; was the first
financial secretary of the body; a firm and consistent advocate of every measure to benefit
the trade or promote harmony.” 1905
Ad: “ALBERT STREGER 337 N. Paulina St., Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 34 (Photo), 77, 93, 159 (Ad), 187

STREGER, Fred
Began jobbing this year (1886)
Was in business for about 15 years
Page 83

STRUCK, Charles
454 Oakdale Avenue
Started jobbing business August, 1898
Succeeded L. LARSEN
Member of the Executive Committee of the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association
Ad: “CHAS. STRUCK 454 Oakdale Ave. Jobbing Confectioner”
Page 115, 135

SULLIVAN
GUEST & SULLIVAN (Partner was H. E. GUEST)
Manufacturer before 1894
Page 107

SULLIVAN, D. J.
Began in jobbing business in 1902
Page 121

SUNDERLAGE, George H.
Bought out jobbing business of Joseph HAGEMEISTER in August 1891
Still in business 1905
Ad: “Geo. H. SUNDERLAGE, 19 Hein Place, Jobbing Confectioner”
Resides at: 19 Hein Place
Page 95, 158 (Ad)

SUTER
The LAUER & SUTER CO.
Ad: “We are manufacturers of good eating and good selling Penny Novelties See our sample
Before buying The LAUER & SUTER CO., 1420 to 1431 Philpot Street, Baltimore, Maryland”
Page 147

SWANSON, Albert C.
70 State Street
Began manufacturing in 1886
Page 81

SWARDSTAD, John
Began jobbing business 1894
Remained in business until killed on a railroad seven years later 1901
Page 109

SYLVESTER, S. E.
Started manufacturing at 217 South Halsted and ran wagon until 1864
Went to Canada 1864-1866
Ran a wagon, manufacturing again at 15 Blue Island Ave. in 1866-1870
Worked for John Kranz as city salesman 1877-1882
Went into business for himself 1882-1886
Retired 1886
Page 25

TALCOT, L. C. (See also TOLCOTT, D. C.?)
49 Randolph Street 1854
Page 13

TAYLOR
TAYLOR BROTHERS CO. INC.
Ad: “The Knowledge — How to do it and — The Facilities for doing it — better than ever
before has given to the Public the ****’TAYLOR-MADE” Honey comb chocolate chip. This has
been thoroughly tested and pronounced to be a chip of Unmatchable Quality — Manufactured
by the Taylor Brothers Company, Inc. Battle Creek, Michigan”
Page 205 (Ad)

TEITGEN, Gust.
Began jobbing business 1894
Page 109

THAUER, Christian F.
City salesman for F. W. RUECKHEIM & BRO.
Began to job candies on May 1, 1883
Per context of Page 105, sold out to C. G. ENGLERT Nov. 16, 1893
Per Page 77 sold out to ENGLERT in 1903
Page 77, 105

THOMAS, Leonard H.
Began jobbing in 1874
Engaged in many real estate deals which added materially to his income
Member of the Confectionery Agents’ Union and Jobbing Confectioners’ Association
“At one time he left the business entirely and ran a meat market, selling out to Washington
SMITH 1891
Bought out by George W. SMITH
Two years later bought out one of the HARRINGTON COMPANY’S wagons August 12, 1893
Sold out to Frank ZECH August 1, 1903
Trustee of the newly formed Confectioners’ Agents’ Union 1880
Page 57, 73, 97

THOMPSON, Arthur
Bought out Charles WIGHT’S jobbing business in September and at once took prominent place
as a jobber September 1888
Bought out jobbers route from Henry C. SCHENDORF September 1888
Ex-President of the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association
Currently a member of the finance committee for the convention and “takes quite a prominent
part in debates.”
Ad: “GIBSON, SYKES and FOWLER, McVICKER’S THEATRE BLDG. “The Five “Live Wires” of the
Jobbing Confectioners of Chicago” Give us your orders for standard and up to date
confections” (each of the five gentlemen are identified by name and address: A. THOMPSON
7041 Union Ave., H. G. GUEST 11919 S. Halsted St., Albert FAYETTE 219 Oakley Blvd., H. H.
KINNE, 248 S. St. Louis Ave., Wm. WEIS, 43 Surrey Ct.)
Page 81, 87, 102 (Ad/Group Photo of “The Five “Live Wires””)

THOMPSON, John H.
JOHN H. THOMPSON & COMPANY
Manufacturers’ Agents
Chicago, Illinois and St. Louis, Missouri
Western Distributors
TROWBRIDGE’S Original Chocolate Chips
H.L. HILDRETH’S original “Velvet”
RUBEL & ALLEGRETTI’S Chocolates
Ad: “The Original Chip is the TROWBRIDGE CHOCOLATE CHIP “Simply Delicious” Insist on having
Trowbridge’s name on every chip. Sold everywhere. Manufactured by THE TROWBRIDGE
CHOCOLATE CHIP COMPANY Boston, Mass, Meadville, Pa. JOHN H. THOMPSON & CO. Western
Distributors”
Page 80 (Ad), 186 (Ad)

THORP
THORP, HAWLEY & CO.
Ad: “The 400 Marshmallows, The kind that tell — Made only by THORP, HAWLEY & CO.”
Page 186 (Ad)

THORP, Alfred P.
ALFRED P. THORP & CO. at 8 South Jefferson Street 1861
Moved to 92 West Randolph Street (remained for 3-4 years) 1862
Page 25

THULIN
CONRATHS & THULIN created in 1882
CONRATHS soon acquired sole business
Page 75

TJARDES, John
Began as jobber in 1896 and sold out in 1897
Page 113

TOLCOTT, D. C.
Father of TOLCOTT, Lester C.
(See also TALCOT, L.C. page 13)
49 Randolph Street 1854
Moved to 67 Randolph Street 1868
“Wholesaled candies and nuts and retailed candies, nuts and fruits.
Succeeded by his son, Lester A. TOLCOTT 1868
Page 13, 15

TOLCOTT, Lester C.
Succeeded father, D. C. TOLCOTT as a manufacturer at 67 Randolph Street and remained in
business for a number of years 1860
Page 13, 15

TORMOEHLEN, Bernhardt
(Also called Bernard and Bernhard)
Son of William TORMOEHLEN and brother of Frederick C., William F., and Edward TORMOEHLEN)
Admitted to the business of his father, William TORMOEHLEN Sr. at 2808 State Street
Father retired.
Brothers separated with Fred retiring, Edward taking his place, and Bernard opening a place
at 9037 Commercial Avenue 1893
Sold out jobbing business to A. JANSEN December 15, 1896
Page 43, 99, 113

TORMOEHLEN, Edward
After retirement of father, William TORMOEHLEN Sr., formed partnership with brother,
William F. and Frederick, called TORMOEHLEN & BROS. and started business at 164 South
Desplaines Street.
Firm name changed to TORMOEHLEN BROS.
Fred retired and Edward took his place 1893
Succeeded by GEORGE & CHARLES
TORMOEHLEN BROS. separated 1893
Page 43, 99

TORMOEHLEN, Frederick C.
Son of William TORMOEHLEN
Fred retired from manufacturing 1893
Ran jobbing business for John Block’s widow finally buying it December 1900 and is still in
business 1905
10009 Avenue M
Page 43, 87, 97, 99, 117

TORMOEHLEN, William F.
Father of Bernhardt (also called “Bernard” and “Berhard”), William F., Edward and
Frederick C. TORMOEHLEN
Started business at 177 Forrest Avenue in 1877
Bought out tools and stock of C. PAPE in October 1877
Joined by son, Bernhardt and moved to 2808 State Street 1884
Retired shortly after 1884
Business assumed by sons William F., Edward and Frederick as WILLIAM F. TORMOEHLEN & BROS.
at 164 South Desplaines Street
Firm Name changed to TORMOEHLEN BROS. October 1, 1888
TORHMOEHLEN BROTHERS separated with Fred retiring, Edward taking his place and Bernard
opening place at 9037 Commercial Avenue 1893
Sold to GEORGE & CHARLES
Plant at 106 West Adams absorbed the by NATIONAL CANDY COMPANY in 1903
Edward H. SCANLAN, Jr. is handling jobbing trade of TORMOEHLEN BRANCH of the NATIONAL CANDY
COMPANY 1905
Page 43, 81, 99, 121

TREIN, Charles
Began jobbing candies (late 1880’s?) and became salesman on the road until he bough out L
FREIDMAN and formed TREIN CONFECTIONERY CO.
Discontinued Dec. 1, 1903
Began manufacturing as TREIN CONFECTIONERY CO. at 128 and 130 Orleans Avenue in 1903
Page 89,121

TRIMBLE
TRIMBLE & ALBERDING
191 and 193 South Desplaines Street
Began manufacturing in late 1880’s
L.C. ALBERDING admitted brother and firm became L.C. ALBERDING & BRO.1887
Page 81

TROWBRIDGE CHOCOLATE CHIP COMPANY
Boston, Mass and Meadville, Pa.
Ad: “The Original Chip is the TROWBRIDGE CHOCOLATE CHIP “Simply Delicious” Insist on having
Trowbridge’s name on every chip. Sold everywhere. Manufactured by THE TROWBRIDGE
CHOCOLATE CHIP COMPANY Boston, Mass, Meadville, Pa. JOHN H. THOMPSON & CO. Western
Distributors”
Page 80 (Ad), 186 (Ad)

TROWBRIDGE, R. G.
Sold out jobbing business to George E. DEXHEIMER September 1904
Page 125

URBANCK, W. M.
(Note: also spelled “URBANEK” on page 99 and 119)
Bought jobber business of John B. CURETON November 1, 1893
Succeeded in business by J. BENDA of BENDA and HYNOUS at 1184 Spaulding Avenue March 1902
(Note “HYNONS” also spelled “HYNOUS” on page 53)
Page 53, 99, 119

URBANEK, W. M.
(Note: also spelled “URBANCK” on page 53)
Bought jobber business of John B. CURETON November 1, 1893
Succeeded in business by J. BENDA of BENDA and HYNOUS at 1184 Spaulding Avenue March 1902
(Note “HYNONS” also spelled “HYNOUS” on page 53)
Page 53, 99, 119

VANDERBUSCH, H. L.
Began jobbing business 1894
Page 109

VAN MARECK, V.
Born in Holland
Partnered with Frank PILGRIM in PILGRIM & VAN MARECK at 134 West Randolph Street January 1,
1868
Retired 1870
Page 35

VARLEY, M. S.
Publisher, 464 Ogden Avenue, Chicago
Ad: “BETTER TIMES ARE COMING BYE & BYE” This beautiful new and catchy song and also “When
the Coon Am De President”, both with words and complete full sheet Music for the Piano, for
20 cents in stamps. M .S. VARLEY, Publisher, 464 Ogden Avenue, Chicago.”
(Note: Ad quoted verbatim for its historical value, despite personal misgivings of
transcriber and sincerest apologies to those rightly offended by racist implication of song
title)
Page 178 (Ad)

VEITH, Louis
Began jobbing business in 1900
“…one of the quiet men in the business, who has a very fair trade.”
Ad: “LOUIS VEITH, 950 S. Ridgeway Ave., Jobbing Confectioner”
Page 117, 158 (Ad)

VERVERS, Joseph
Began in wholesale and manufacturing business 1893
Still in the jobbing business 1905
Page 99

VON BERNER, C.O.
Began a jobbing business 1894
Page 109

WALSH, Austin
Began with wagon in Spring 1872
Sold out to Henry G. LEUDTKE Spring 1873
Page 51

WALTER, George
Bought out jobbing business of F. D. PARMAN 1894
Page 109

WARREN, E. D.
135 Twenty-Second Street
page 51

WATERS, John
Ad: “Dealer in high grade Hard & Soft Coal :: Coke and Kindling, 1058 W. Harrison St.”
Page 135 (Ad)

WAYMAN
WAYMAN & MURPHY
Manufacturers and Dealers in Carriages, Wagons and Trucks
Randolph & Sangamon Sts.
Chicago
Repairing, Painting We make a speciality of Mfg. Candy wagons
Page 72 (Ad)

WEBER, John J.
Began jobbing in 1896
7142 South Chicago Avenue
page 113

WEBER, Max
Began jobbing confectionery products 1895
Page 109

WEBER, Peter
Bought out C. ROTH manufacturing business at 83 Blue Island Avenue Fall 1873
Became city salesman for BROOKS & HAEHNLEN until they went out of business
Started own jobbing business 1894
Continues as jobber of candies 1905
Page 53

WEBSTER, W. B.
70 State Street 1854
Page 13

WEGNER, Ludwig
Began jobbing candies December 7, 1893
Still in Business 1905
Resides in Cheltenham
Page 105

WEHNER, Albert
Another successful jobber who started out catering to the suburban trade (1893) and after
being in business about three years sold out to go into the real estate business. 1896
Page 103

WEIDERKEHR, Joseph A.
(See also WIEDERKEHR, Joseph, as spelled on page 121 and in Ad on page 158
Bought out jobbing business of George A. MACINTOSH August 1, 1893
Still engaged in business 1905
Ad: “Joseph Wiederkehr, 6102 Sangamon St., Jobbing Confectioner”
Resides at 6102 South Sangamon Street 1905
Page 67, 105, 121, 158 (Ad)

WEIDMAN, George
Began manufacturing business 1895
21 Clark Street
Page 67

WEINECKE, J. F.
Began jobbing business 1894
Page 109

WEIS, William
WEIS, Mrs. William, 1st Vice President, Ladies Auxiliary of Chicago Jobbing Confectioners
Association when first formed March 1, 1905(Page 78 Group Photo, text 125)
Chairman, Banquet Committee, Chicago Jobbing Confectioners’ Association
On the death of Paul SASSO bought out his jobbing business May 19, 1890
Still jobbing 1905
Past President of the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association, delegate to the National
Association at its initial meeting, member of the banquet committee of the convention and
on the finance committee
“A good worker, interested in promoting the interests of the trade.”
Ad: “GIBSON, SYKES and FOWLER, McVICKER’S THEATRE BLDG. “The Five “Live Wires” of the
Jobbing Confectioners of Chicago” Give us your orders for standard and up to date
confections” (each of the five gentlemen are identified by name and address: A. THOMPSON
7041 Union Ave., H. G. GUEST 11919 S. Halsted St., Albert FAYETTE 219 Oakley Blvd., H. H.
KINNE, 248 S. St. Louis Ave., Wm. WEIS, 43 Surrey Ct.)
Resides at: 43 Surrey Court 1905
Page 74 (Photo), 78 (Mrs. WEIS Group Photo and page 125), 85, 91, 102 (Ad/Photo of “The
Five “Live Wires””)

WEISBAUM, Harry L.
Bought out jobbing business of Louis EHEIM 1894
Sold business back to Louis EHEIM 1895
Page 109

WENDELBURG, Henry
Sold jobbing business to Charles H. Sell at 3928 Artesian Ave. 1902
Page 121

WERRES, Anthony H. C.
Originally in bakery business
“one of the jolly men in business”
Continuing on a wagon until he sold out to take position as traveling salesman 1885
Page 63

WEST SIDE CANDY CO.
Began manufacturing at 171 South Desplaines in 1901
Page 119

WESTERN CONFECTION CO.
(See also C. S. MATHER & SON whose business per page 109 became the WESTERN CONFECTIONERY
CO.)
52-54-56-58 West Jackson Blvd.
“Uncle Cy’s Corn Wafers”
Page 52 (Ad), 109

WHITMAN, F. C.
(Note: spelled “WITTMAN” on page 69
Purchased jobbers’ route from William H. DIBBLE June 2, 1890
Bought out A. CONKLIN on June 2, 1890
Still jobbing candies 1905
Member of the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association finance committee
Ad: “F. C. WITTMAN 1089 Kimball Ave. Wholesale Confectioner”
Resides at: 1089 Kimball Avenue 1905
Page 69, 91, 155 (Ad)

WICHELMANN, Fred A.
WICHELMANN & ODLIN
Began manufacturing homemade candies and popcorn at 148 Dearborn Street 1864
Moved to 273 Madison Street 1868 – October 9, 1871 (Fire)
Reopened (no partner) at 277 Madison Street 1872 – 1884
Retired 1884
Page 35

WIEDERKEHR, Joseph A.
(See also WEIDERKEHR, Joseph, as spelled on pages 67, 105
Bought out jobbing business of George A. MACINTOSH August 1, 1893
Sold route for jobbing business to August MOENCH at 2902 Wentworth Avenue 1902
Still engaged in business 1905
Ad: “Joseph Wiederkehr, 6102 Sangamon St., Jobbing Confectioner”
Resides at 6102 South Sangamon Street 1905
Page 67, 105, 121, 158 (Ad)

WIGHT, Charles
Bought out route from Henry C. SCHENDORF
Sold out to Arthur THOMPSON in September 1888
Page 81, 87

WILBUR, H. O.
Ad: “WILBUR’S — For those who value quality — Wilbur’s American milk chocolate, Wilbur’s
Vanilla Chocolate Buds, Wilbur’s Sweet Clover Vanilla Chocoate, Wilbur’s Chocolate Coatings
and Liquors, H. O. WILBUR & SONS, New York, Philadelphia, Chicago”
Page 154 (Ad)

WILLEY, Herbert
Partnered with Frank FIELD and B. F. SMITH in opening bakery and candy factory at 108 West
Washington Street, under name of FRANK FIELD & CO.
Moved to 203 East Van Buren Street, corner of Franklin Street, dropped bakery to focus on
candy.
Company went into receivership and was sold to SMITH & HALE
Page 63, 65

WILLIAMS
FRITSCH & WILLIAMS
Began manufacturing 1895
209 North Wells Street
Page 67

WILLIAMS
WILLIAMS & HOFFMAN
Frederick HOFFMAN was junior member of WILLIAMS & HOFFMAN, 185 Ontario Street 1905
Ad: “WILLIAMS & HOFFMAN, Manufacturing Confectioners, 85-87 Ontario Street, Phone North
1950 – Chicago, Specialties in Marshmallow and Cream Goods”
Page 114 (Ad)

WINDSOR
HAYWORD-WINDSOR Co. a wholesale and manufacturing concern established at 161 South Canal in
September 1,1893
Business failed August 27, 1904
Page 95, 99

WINTER
WINTER & GOLDMAN
124 Dearborn Street
Started business 1878?
Page 51

WIRTH, A. F.
Mrs. A. F. Wirth was member of the Ladies’ Auxiliary of the Chicago Jobbing Confectioners’
Association when formed March 1, 1905.
Ad: “A. F. WIRTH, 188 Sheffield Av. Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 125,134 (Ad)

WIRTH, R. C.
Began jobbing in 1896
Now jobbing candies in Racine, Wisconsin 1905
Page 113

WITTMAN, F. C.
(Note: Spelled “WHITMAN” on page 91)
Purchased jobbers’ route from William H. DIBBLE June 2, 1890
Bought out A. CONKLIN on June 2, 1890
Still jobbing candies 1905
Member of the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association finance committee
Ad: “F. C. WITTMAN, 1089 Kimball Ave. Wholesale Confectioner”
Resides at: 1089 Kimball Avenue 1905
Page 69, 91, 155 (Ad)

WOEHRLE, Charles
WOEHRLE, Charles Jr.
Started manufacturing candies at 115 Blue Island Avenue
Son and namesake is still jobbing candies 1905
Page 63

WOOD, N. S.
An actor, who partnered with E. F. GAVIN to manufacture candy at 145 South Clinton Street
under the firm name of E. F. GAVIN & COMPANY, on May 1, 1892.
Continued in business until it failed February 22, 1893
Page 95

WRUBLIK, W.
Began jobbing business 1894
Page 109

WUEST-BAUMAN-HUNT CO.
Cleveland, Ohio
Ad: “We are the originators and makers of the only GENUINE ITALIAN CREAM on the market.
Flavors: Vanila, Chocolate, Orange, Peach Also the original PRINCESS KISS, A most delicious
piece of molasses candy. We also make Creameata Nut Nougat and Vanila and Chocolate Walnut
block. BEWARE OF IMITATIONS! Attempts have been and are being made to imitate our goods.
Our goods are still unequaled. The WUEST-BAUMAN-HUNT CO. Cleveland, Ohio.”
Page 139 (Ad)

YOUNG, William H.
5917 Princeton Avenue
Bought out jobber business of Gustav KOENTIZER January 5, 1903
Ad: “Wm. H. YOUNG 5917 Princeton Av. Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 121, 134 (Ad)

YOUNKER, H.
Bought out John H. BOWDEN’s wagon jobber business August 13, 1874
Sold out to H. LANDIS May 1876
Page 51

ZAJICEK, Thomas
Began in jobbing business in 1902
Sold out to Steven JIRSA/JERSA January 7, 1905
Page 121, 125

ZECH, Frank
Ad: “PARMAN BROS. & ZECH, Jobbers of all the better makes of Chocolates and High Grade
Candies
2915-17 North Hermitage Avenue, Ravenswood, Illinois”
Member of PARMAN BROS. & ZECH WHICH bought out “jobber” business of Leonard H. THOMAS at
716 Winnemac August 1, 1903
“…firm PARMAN BROS. & ZECH, 2719 North Hermitage Avenue” 1905
Page 59, 80 (Ad), 109, 123

ZEESE, William
Began jobbing business at 258 Cortlandt Street in 1903
Page 123

ZENO
ZENO MFG. CO.
ZENO Chewing Gum
Chicago
Page 73 (Ad)

ZENITH
Ad: “Specialties – Fine chocolates, pail goods, penny goods — ZENITH — always the same
The Jobbers’ favorites��AMERICAN CHOCOLATE CONFECTION CO. 123-125 La Salle Av., Chicago”
Page 21 (Ad)

ZIEGLER, George
Ad: “More could be said, but what’s the use. GEO. ZIEGLER CO. Manufacturing Confectioners,
Milwaukee, Wisconsin — That’s quite enough”
Page 162 (Ad)

ZIERVOGEL, H.
Began jobbing business at 603 Turner Avenue on October 1, 1903
Ad: “H. ZIERVOGEL 603 Turner Ave. Wholesale Confectioner”
Page 123, 178 (Ad)

ZIESE, William
Ad: “Wm. ZIESE, Wholesale Confectioner, 258 Cortlandt St.”
Page 134

ZIMMERMAN, John J.
Treasurer of stock company formed under the name of M. E. PAGE Confectionery Company.
August 18, 1890
Stock company failed and went out of business August 18, 1897
Page 33

ZIMMERMAN, R. P.
Proprietor HOTEL SOMERSET
12th Street and Wabash Avenue
Ad: “One Block West of Illinois Central Depot, The best accomodations for the price in the
city. Hot and cold water in every room. Rates: 50cents, 75 cents, and $1.00 per day. All
modern conveniences. Ten minutes walk from the heart of the City.”
Page 122 (Ad)

ZUBER, Michael
Began as a jobber May, 1894
Sold out business to J. L. KOEBELIN February 1899
Page 107, 117

Contributed May 2000 by E. H. Callanan
Source: Historical Sketch of the Confectionery Trade of Chicago, by Henry G. Abbott, published by the Jobbing Confectioners’ Association, Chicago, 1905

Early Chicago: A Lecture (1876)

The book Early Chicago. A Lecture delivered before the Sunday Lecture Society, at McCormick Hall, on Sunday afternoon, May 7th, 1876 by Hon. John Wentworth is available online for free viewing.


 

One year ago, I gave a lecture at this place, as I then stated to you, “with a view of exciting among our people a spirit of historical research which would result in recovering lost newspapers and documents, and placing upon record the experiences of our early settlers.” I had no ambition to figure as a lecturer, or as a historian. I waited until the regular lecture course was finished. The proceeds were given with pleasure to the Committee for the employment of men more at home in the lecture field, as the proceeds of this lecture will be,—such men as pass six months in preparing one, two, or three lectures, and pass the next six months in delivering them. As this is their sole means of living, it is right that they should be well paid for them; and it is one of the noble objects of this Association to furnish you, at an hour when you have no worldly pursuits nor religious entertainments, for ten cents, what other people on a week-day pay from fifty cents to a dollar for.

I can think of no other object that would have brought me before you with a written lecture. I felt that the duty peculiarly devolved upon me, and I performed it with pleasure. There are scarcely half a dozen persons, habituated to public speaking, who were here before the city was incorporated. I was sole conductor of a public press for twenty-five years lacking a few months. It seemed proper that I should lead off in this important matter.

The Chicago Democrat was commenced on the 26th of November, 1833, by the late John Calhoun, whose widow now resides in this city. Augustine D. Taylor, now living in this city, saw the press landed; and Walter Kimball, now living in this city, was a visitor in the office, and saw the first number printed. That paper fell into my hands in November, 1836, and contained not only a history of current events, but also a vast amount of information touching the early history of the entire Northwest. It is a sad reflection that the same fire which swept away my files, also swept away those of everyone else, and all our public records. But there are copies of the Chicago Democrat scattered all over the Northwest, as well as of other papers and documents that will be of service in restoring our lost history. No person should destroy any papers or documents of a date prior to the fire. If there is no one who wants them, let them be sent to me, and I will take care of them until our Chicago Historical Society becomes reorganized. Our old settlers are fast passing away. Some of the few remaining have very retentive memories. Let them not be discouraged because they do not remember dates. It is events that we want; and by comparing them with other events, the dates of which we know, we can in time obtain the exact dates of all of them.

While so many of our old settlers have passed away, there yet may be remaining among their effects old papers whose value their legal representatives do not appreciate. Many old packages have been given to me, with the remark that they did not see of what use they could be to me. One widow sent me some pieces of newspapers, which the mice had kindly spared, with the remark that she was ashamed to be sending such old trash to any one; but from-them facts enough were gathered to save another widow from being swindled out of her homestead. When I lectured before, it was a matter of dispute what was the name of the first steamboat that ever came to Chicago, and who was the person in command. She came to bring the troops for the Black Hawk War in 1832, and brought the cholera with them. All that was known for a certainty was the place where they dug the pit into which they most unceremoniously plunged the dead bodies. That was remembered because it was the site of the old American Temperance House, northwest corner of Lake street and Wabash avenue; and many old settlers remembered that from the fact that they always passed by the Temperance House on the other side, and so could read the sign. The river and lake water, which we had to drink in those days, was considered unhealthy. I made a statement as to the name of that boat, based upon what I considered the best authority. But when I had finished, a gentleman came upon the stage and gave me another name, claiming that he helped fit out the very vessel at Cleveland, and I changed my manuscript to correspond. But some of the reporters published the statement as I delivered it, and thus two statements were before the public, as given by me. Thus different persons, anxious to assist me in reestablishing the landmarks of history, had an opportunity, by quoting the one statement to provoke discussion by insisting that the other statement was true, when they really did not know any more about the matter than I did, and had perhaps consulted only one authority, when I had previously consulted many. But a lady, in looking over her old papers, found, where she least expected it, a Chicago Democrat dated March 14, 1861, containing a letter from Capt. A. Walker, giving a history of the whole expedition, showing that both statements were correct. The United States Government chartered four steamers to bring troops and supplies to Chicago, and their names were the Superior, Henry Clay, William Penn, and Sheldon Thompson; but the Superior and Henry Clay were sent back when the cholera broke out on board. Capt. Walker says, that when he arrived at Chicago, in July, 1832, there were but five dwelling-houses here, three of which were made of logs. There are other old newspapers yet to be found settling questions equally as interesting.

All must admit, that there has been more said about the history of Chicago, and more important publications made, the past year than ever before. Booksellers inform me that they have had within the past year, a greater demand than in all time before for all works appertaining to the history of the Northwest, and that they have had, all the while, standing orders for such works as are out of print. And it is to encourage a still further research that I address you to-day. And, if the result of this year’s researches is not satisfactory, I shall feel myself in duty bound to address you again in a year from this time. Many aged settlers have thanked me for bringing them into a higher appreciation. One octogenarian lady informs me that, for the past fifteen years, when any young company came to the house, she was expected to leave the room. After my lecture, she said she saw a gentleman approaching the house, and she left the room as usual. But soon her granddaughter came out and said, “It is you he wants.” And this was the first gentleman caller-she had had for fifteen years. When she entered the room, and he told her he wanted to inquire about early Chicago, she felt as if her youth had come again, and she told the others that it was their time to leave the room. She said, “He has been to see me six times, and has printed nearly all I said, and there is not another member of our large family who-has ever said a word that was thought of sufficient importance to be printed; and now I am thinking over what I know about early Chicago, and letting the newspapers have it.” She observed with great force that the young folks were constantly asking her how she used to get along amid early privations, and she insisted that, if I ever lectured again, I should assert that the early settlers of Chicago were the happiest people in the world, as I believe they were. But a strict regard for the real historical purposes of this lecture will permit me to allude only incidentally to our early sources of entertainment.

We are apt to speak of Chicago as a new city. But it is not so, compared with the great mass of other cities in the United States.

Take out Detroit, Cincinnati, St. Louis, and New Orleans, and what is there older, in the date of its incorporation, in the West, extending to the Pacific? But when our city was organized we had no Pacific possessions, save Oregon Territory, which we then owned in common with Great Britain. The future historian of America will not, however, take into consideration the date of our incorporation. The ancient Romans were in the habit of dating events from the foundation of their city. But “Urbs condita” or “Chicago condita” will never be a reckoning point in our city’s history. Even in this assembly, there are not as many who know in what year our city was incorporated as in one of our public schools there are children who can spell Melchisedec, notwithstanding modern politicians have kicked from the public schools the Book that contained the eighth commandment.

From Washington’s inauguration, in 1789, to Chicago’s first Mayor’s inauguration, in 1837, we have but forty-eight years, a period of time that the future historian of America, when speaking of Chicago, will not notice. But a resident of Chicago was not elected to Congress until 1843, and yet he became associated not only with men prominent under every Administration of the United States Government, and many of them born before the inauguration of Washington, but with some born even before the Declaration of Independence, and two, at least, before the tea was thrown overboard in Boston harbor. John Quincy Adams was born in 1767, and he was accustomed to tell us that among his earliest recollections was that of hearing the report of the guns at the battle of Bunker Hill. Benjamin Tappan, Senator from Ohio, was born in 1773. Then there was Henry Clay, Secretary of State while John Quincy Adams was President, United States Senator as early as 1806, Speaker of the House in 1811, born in 1777, nine months after the Declaration of Independence, and one who could collect a larger crowd and disperse it quicker and in better humor than any other man who ever lived in America. I shall never forget my last interview with Henry Clay, and its description is appropriate to the history of Chicago. Our harbor was suffering for appropriations. President Polk had vetoed them all. A change of dynasties had been effected. Millard Fillmore was the acting President, and he was a warm friend of our harbor. It was in the spring of 1851. The Harbor bill had passed the House, and was sent to the Senate at a late day, and the controlling spirits had managed to keep it back until a still later day. The Southern Senators, under the lead of Jefferson Davis, spoke against time, declaring the bill unconstitutional. Clay did all that man could do for us, but in vain. Our bill was talked to death. Clay came on with us to New York City, to take a steamer for New Orleans. As the vessel was about to sail, we went on board to take our leave of him, and we all expressed a hope that the next time he returned home he would go around by the lakes. He replied, “I never go where the Constitution does not go. Hence I must travel by salt water. Make your lakes Constitutional. Keep up the war until your lake harbors get their deserved appropriations, and then I will come out and see you.” We finally got the Constitution out here, but not until after Henry Clay had paid the debt of nature.

Then there was John C. Calhoun, Vice-President while John Quincy Adams was President in 1825; a member of Congress in 1811; Secretary of War when the reconstruction of our fort was completed in 1817; born in 1782, the year before Great Britain acknowledged our independence. He said his name came once very nearly being associated with Chicago,- as the new fort had been completed while he was Secretary of War, and it was suggested that it be called Fort Calhoun. But he did not think it right to change the old name which had been given in honor of Gen. Henry Dearborn, who was Secretary of War when the first fort was built, in 1804. Official documents tell us that, in 1803, Capt. John Whistler, then a Lieutenant at Detroit, was ordered here to build the fort, that his troops came by land, and that he, with his family and his supplies, came round by the lakes in the United States schooner Tracy, with Dorr for Master. This probably was the first sail-vessel that ever came to Chicago. I can think of no business that could have brought one here before. This Capt. John Whistler was father of Col. William Whistler, who died in 1863, and was so favorably known by our early settlers, and who was father-in-law of the late Robert A. Kinzie, of this city.

Besides, there was Judge William Wilkins, of Pennsylvania, born in 1779; Daniel Webster, of Massachusetts, born in 1782; John J. Crittenden, of Kentucky, born in 17863 and Judge Levi Woodbury, of New Hampshire, born in 1789.

Then there were three men whose names are identified with the history of the West. There was Lewis Cass, born in 1782, appointed, in 1813, Governor of the Northwestern Territory, then embracing Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, and all west. And William Woodbridge, born in 1780, appointed in 1814, Secretary of the same Territory. These gentlemen where walking histories of the Northwest. Then there was Thomas H. Benton, born in 1782, Senator when Missouri was admitted in 1821, who made his first trips to Washington on horseback. Add his knowledge to that of Messrs. Woodbridge and Cass, and we have a complete history of the entire West. Many now before me will remember the patriotic lecture he delivered here in the spring of 1857, upon the approaching crisis to this country, about a year before his death, probably the last lecture of his life. Nor should I fail to mention Gen. Henry Dodge, the Anthony Wayne-of his period, born also in 1782, one of the first Senators from Wisconsin.

A single member of Congress, and the first one elected from Chicago, was associated in Congress with two members who served in President Monroe’s Cabinet, one in President J. Q. Adams’, three in President Jackson’s, one in President Van Buren’s, five in President Harrison’s, four in President Tyler’s, four in President Polk’s, four in President Taylor’s, seven in President Fillmore’s, four in President Pierce’s, five in President Buchanan’s, and six in President Lincoln’s; embracing a period of American official history from 1817; and some of these men were born before the tea was thrown overboard in Boston harbor.

For some years after Chicago elected her first member of Congress, the widow of President Madison gave receptions at Washington, and on the first of January her guests were shown apartments where were suspended dresses which she had worn upon all great occasions, including the receptions of Presidents Washington, Adams, Jefferson, and her husband. James Madison was not only a member of the Continental Congress, but also a member of the first Congress under the Constitution, and so continued during the terms of Washington’s Presidency; and was Secretary of State under Mr. Jefferson’s Administration. So this lady had had ample opportunity to know the customs of every preceding period of our Governmental history. Now, if her heirs bring out these dresses for the Centennial (she had no children), the public will be astonished at their remarkably small number, she not having had, in over a quarter of a century, what the wife of the average officeholder of these days will have in a single year.

Then there was the widow of Gen. Alexander Hamilton, the confidant of Gen. Washington in the Revolution, and his Secretary of the Treasury, who was killed in a duel by Aaron Burr. She was born in 1757, and died at Washington in 1854. She was soliciting Congress to aid her in publishing her husband’s works. She could tell all about her father, Gen. Philip Schuyler, of the American Revolution; the personal appearance of Gen. Washington and his lady; and of almost all other public persons of the Revolutionary period. In fact, when you sent your first member of Congress to Washington, all society was redolent with scenes of the Revolutionary period; and here in our midst were several Revolutionary soldiers; and one, Father David Keniston, who claimed to have been one of the party who threw the tea overboard in Boston Harbor.

You will excuse me for digressing from the direct purpose of this lecture if I here state to you, that since I commenced writing it, I have received a letter from an old colleague in Congress, who was born the same year Great Britain acknowledged our independence, 1783,—as it will probably be the last opportunity that many of you will ever have of hearing a letter read from a man now living who is older than our Government; I allude to the Hon. Artemas Hale, of Bridgewater, Mass. He is the oldest ex-member of Congress now living, in his 93d year. Do you want to hear what the veteran says?

My health, considering my age, is quite good. But my time for taking any active part in public matters is past. Still, however, I feel a deep interest in the welfare and prosperity of our beloved country, and am pained to hear of the corruption and frauds of so many of our public men. It appears to me that it is of the highest importance that our circulating medium should have a fixed and permanent value, which it cannot have but by a specie basis. I should be very much pleased to receive a letter from you, with your views of public matters.

I answered his letter in one word, “Amen !”

Thus you will see that our history laps so closely upon the Revolutionary period that there is no precise point at which we can say that Chicago began, unless it be in 1832, when the marching of the troops of Gen. Scott to Rock Island, on the Mississippi, called attention to the fertility of the soil and the beautiful locations west of us. We often hear of different men who have done much for Chicago, by their writings, their speeches, or their enterprise. But I have never heard of a man who has done more for Chicago than Chicago has done for him. God made Lake Michigan and the country to the west of it; and, when we come to estimate who have done the most for Chicago, the glory belongs first to the enterprising farmers who raised a surplus of produce and sent it here for shipment; and second, to the hardy sailors who braved the storms of our harborless lakes to carry it to market. All other classes – were the incidents, and not the necessities, of our embryo city. Chicago is but the index of the prosperity of our agricultural classes. And to this day we hear Chicago mercantile failures attributed to the inability of farmers to get their produce to market, when the roads are in a bad condition. If we pass by the impetus given to the agricultural development of the country west of Chicago by the Black Hawk War of 1832, we must admit that we are passing into the bi-centennial period. What did Chicago know of the Declaration of Independence, the Revolutionary War, the Peace of 1783, or the inauguration of Washington, until years afterwards? It is probable that Capt Whistler, when he came here to build the fort of 1804, brought to Chicago the first information on these subjects, and probably had to employ an interpreter to explain it. It was probably his Chaplain that made the first prayer for the President of the United States and all in authority; and his vessel that first floated the Stars and Stripes on Lake Michigan. But there were prayers here 200 years ago, and a flag that did not denote our national independence, but French territorial aggrandizement.

I have used my best efforts to find the earliest recognition of Chicago by any official authority. Charlevoix and other French writers make mention of the place, but I cannot find that the French Government in any way recognized it. After the Canadas were ceded to Great Britain, the whole Illinois country was placed under the local administration of Canada by a bill which passed the British Parliament in 1766, known as the “Quebec Bill;” but there is nothing to prove that the Canadian Government took any official notice of this place. It may be interesting to know what was religious liberty in those days. At the period of the change of Government from the French, under the treaty of Paris, in 1763, Thomas Gage was Commander-in-Chief of the British King’s troops in North America; and in 1764, he issued a proclamation authorizing the Roman Catholics of Illinois to exercise the worship of their religion in the same manner as they did in Canada, and to go wherever they pleased, even to New Orleans.

In October, 1778, the House of Burgesses of Virginia created the County of Illinois, appointed John Todd, of Kentucky, Civil Commander, and authorized all the civil officers to which the inhabitants had been accustomed, to be chosen by a majority of the citizens of their respective districts. From this we should infer that there were then settlements somewhere in the State. But I can find nothing of Chicago while we belonged to Virginia. The late Wm. H. Brown, of this city, in a lecture before our Historical Society, in 1865, said: “The French inhabitants of Kaskaskia, in 1818, the year in which I made my residence there, claimed that that village was founded in 1707. There were evidences at that time (the remains of former edifices, among them the Jesuit College) that their chronology was substantially correct.”

In 1788, Gen. Arthur St. Clair became Governor of the entire Northwestern Territory, and was the first man to fill that position.

The seat of government for Chicago people was then at Marietta, O. In 1790 he came to Kaskaskia (some writers say Cahokia) and organized what is now the entire State of Illinois into a county, which he named for himself. Besides this there were but two counties in the whole Northwestern Territory—the County of Knox, embracing Indiana, and the County of Hamilton, embracing Ohio. But there is nothing to show that Chicago at that time was known to the civil authorities. Besides consulting all the early writers upon the subject, I have corresponded with all the men in the country who I thought would know anything concerning it. And I cannot find anyone who has any authority for stating that there was any official recognition of Chicago until Gen. Wayne’s Treaty, made at Greenville in 1795, in which he acquired title from the Indians to a tract of land, six miles square, at the mouth of the Chicago River, where a fort formerly stood. Greenville is in the southwestern part of Ohio, in Dark County, upon the Indiana State line.

There is nothing to show that, at that time, Gen. Wayne came any farther west, not even as far as Fort Wayne, although he appears to have had the same knowledge of the importance of the position of Fort Wayne as he did of that of Chicago. Why the fort at this place, referred to, was built here, and who built it, I have not been able to ascertain. As the French and Indians were always allies, there is no reason why the French should have built such a fort. It may be that it was built by one of the tribes of Indians to defend the place from some other tribe. But offsetting tradition against Gen. Wayne’s official recognition of a fort here, it may be that there was a mere trading and store-house, surrounded by pickets. The prevailing impression is that such was the character of all those places called forts prior to the abdication of the French authority. Col. Gurdon S. Hubbard, our oldest living settler, who was here in 1818, favors this idea, and has reminded me of an almost forgotten, but at one time extensively received, tradition, that this old fort, or palisaded trading-post, was on the West Side, upon the North Branch, near where Indiana street now crosses it; and it was erected, or at least was at one time occupied, by a Frenchman named Garie, and hence the tradition that our North Branch river was one called “Garie’s River.”

There was a powerful chief of the Illinois named Chicagou, who went to France in the year 1725. The Hon. Sidney Breese, who settled at Kaskaskia in 1818, who was in the United States Senate six years during my service in Congress, and who still honors our Supreme Court, is the best informed man in Illinois history now living. He writes me:

I know of no authorized recognition of Chicago as a place on this globe, anterior to Wayne’s treaty. I have a copy of a map, which I made from one in the Congressional Library, which I found among the papers of President Jefferson, made in 1685; in which is a place on the lake shore, about where your city is, marked “Chicagou;” and Father Louis Vivier, who was a priest at Kaskaskia in 1752, in a letter to his Superior, says: “Chikagou was a celebrated Indian chief, who went to Paris, and the Duchess of Orleans, at Versailles, gave him a splendid snuff-box, which he was proud to exhibit, on his return, to his brother redskins.”

Some have contended that our city was named from him. But Charlevoix, in his History of New France, gives us that name as early as 1671, in which year, he says, a French voyageur, named Nicholas Perrot, went to Chicago, at the lower end of Lake Michigan, where the Miamis then were. This was before Father James Marquette came here.

The treaty of Greenville, at the time considered of no other importance than as settling our difficulties with the Indians, afterwards became a matter of very serious importance in the settlement of our difficulties with Great Britain, while the treaty of Ghent was being negotiated, 1814. When the Commissioners met, the Americans were surprised by the British Commissioners demanding the recognition of that treaty as the basis of negotiations as to the western boundary of the United States. The British at first refused to negotiate except upon the basis of that treaty, and insisted upon the entire sovereignty and independence of the Indian Confederacy. They claimed the Indians as their allies, and considered themselves bound to protect them in their treaty. It will be remembered that the Indians had, for a long time, received annuities from the French Government, and that these annuities were continued by Great Britain after the treaty of cession in 1763; and that, after our independence was acknowledged by Great Britain, the Indians annually sent delegations to Canada to receive these annuities.

During the pendency of these negotiations, it was ascertained that there had been an alliance, offensive and defensive, between the celebrated Chief Tecumseh and the British authorities. After discussing the matter, and finding the Americans peremptorily refusing to acknowledge the sovereignty of the Indians, the British Commissioners proposed that the United States and Great Britain should exercise a joint protectorate over the Indians, and consider all the territory not acknowledged to belong to the United States by the treaty of Greenville as embraced within that protectorate. This would have left the six miles square at the mouth of the Chicago River in a permanently Indian country. The West would have been situated similarly to Oregon, which was so long held under the joint occupation of Great Britain and the United States; and the final result of the joint occupation would have been the same as in Oregon, a division of the territory; a part of it, perhaps including Chicago, being attached, in the end, to the Canadian provinces. The British Commissioners were so pertinacious on this subject that it was thought at one time that negotiations would have to be given up. And when the British Commissioners finally yielded, the British Government received the bitter curses of the Indians.

Billy Caldwell, better known in Chicago as Sauganash, who lived here several years after I came here, and was well known to me personally, had been the intimate friend of Tecumseh, and declared that if Tecumseh had been living he would have aroused all the Indians in the Northwest in a general warfare upon the Canadian settlements, in retaliation for what he considered the treachery at Ghent. Caldwell, to the day of his death, insisted that Tecumseh, not long before he was killed, predicted that the British in time would abandon them, and seriously meditated, during the war of 1812, upon going over to the Americans with all his forces. Caldwell was the son of an Irish Colonel in the British army, stationed upon the Detroit frontier, whose name he bore. His mother was Tecumseh’s own sister. He ultimately went to his tribe at the Pottawatomie Reservation in Shawnee County, Kan., and died there.

When the Illinois territory was a part of Indiana, our seat of government was at Vincennes. When it was set off from Indiana, in 1809, the whole territory was organized into two counties, St. Clair and Randolph. Judge Breese, whose home was in Kaskaskia in 1818, informs me that his home was never in the same county with Chicago, being in the southern County of Randolph.

From St. Clair County, what is now Cook County, was set off in the new County of Madison; thence in the new County of Crawford; in 1819, in the new County of Clark; and so little was then known of the northern country, that the act creating Clark County extended it to the Canada line. In 1821, we were set off in the new County of Pike; in 1823, in the new County of Fulton; and in 1825, in the new County of Peoria. I have not only caused the County records of these counties to be examined, but have also corresponded with their earliest settlers, and I can find no official recognition of Chicago until we reach Fulton County. The Clerk of that County writes me, that the earliest mention of Chicago in the records is the order of an election at the term of the Fulton County Commissioners’ Court, Sept. 2, 1823, to choose one Major and company officers, polls at Chicago to be opened at the house of John Kinzie. The returns of this election cannot be found, if they were ever made. As the county was organized in 1823, this, of course, was the first election under the organization of the county. The same Court ordered, April 27, 1824, that the Sheriff, Abner Eads, be released from paying the money tax collected at Chicago by Rousser. In those days the Sheriffs were ex-officio collectors of taxes. The name indicates that our Tax-Collector was then a Frenchman, or a mixed-breed French and Indian. It seems that they had defaulters in those days, as well as now. It would be a gratifying historical fact if we could know how much this man Rousser collected, as showing the financial resources of our population at that time, when all the real estate belonged to the General Government. The numerous followers of this man Rousser have shown their ingratitude to the founder of their sect by their failure to erect any monument to his memory, or to name after him a street, a school-house, or a fire-engine house. These Rousserites are getting to be a numerous body of men, and their motto is, “Keep what you collect.” One election and one steal are all that the records of Fulton County show for Chicago!

The Clerk of Peoria County writes me, that his earliest records commence March 8, 1825. From these records I learn that John Kinzie was commissioned Justice of the Peace July 28, 1825. He was the first Justice of the Peace resident at Chicago. Alexander Wolcott, his son-in-law, and John B. Beaubien, were commissioned Sept. 10, of the same year.

I have also the assessment-roll of John L. Bogardus, assessor of Peoria County, for the year 1825, dated July 25, which is as follows:

Tax-Payers’ Names.; Valuation.; Tax.
1. Beaubien, John B; $1000; $10.00
2. Clybourne, Jonas; 625; 6.25
3. Clark, John K; 250; 2.50
4. Crafts, John; 5000; 50.00
5. Clermont, Jeremy; 100; 1.00
6. Coutra, Louis; 50; .50
7. Kinzie, John, 500; 5.00
8. Laframboise, Claude; 100; 1.00
9. Laframboise, Joseph; 50; .50
10. McKee, David; 100; 1.00
11. Piche, Peter; 100; 1.00
12. Robinson, Alexander; 200; 2.00
13. Wolcott, Alexander; 572; 5.72
14. Wilemet [Ouilmette], Antoine; 400; 4.00

[Page 16]

The entire valuation, land then being not taxable, of all the property in Chicago was $9,047, and the rate was one per cent. But the property of the American Fur Company was assessed to John Crafts, its agent, at $5,000. He was a bachelor, and died the next year, and Mr. Kinzie was appointed in his place. Deducting the American Fur Co.’s assessment, we have only $4,047 as the personal property of Chicago, in 1825, $40.47 as the tax, and thirteen as the number of the tax-payers.

The clerk sent me a copy of two poll-books used at Chicago – one at an election held Aug. 7, 1826, containing thirty-five names; the other at an election held Aug. 2, 1830, containing thirty-two names; thus showing a decrease of three voters in four years. I will read you the names of our voters in 1826, and you will see that only ten of the fourteen tax-payers in 1825 then voted:

1 Augustin Banny. [Bannot?]
2 Henry Kelley.
3 Daniel Bourassea.
4 Cole Weeks.
5 Antoine Ouilmette. 1825
6 John Baptiste Secor.
7 Joseph Catie.
8 Benjamin Russell.
9 Basile Displattes.
10 Francis Laframboise, Sr.
11 Francis Laframboise, Jr.
12 Joseph Laframboise. 1825
13 Alexander Larant.
14 Francis Laducier.
15 Peter Chavellie.
16 Claude Laframboise. 1825
17 Jeremiah Clairmore [Clermont ?] ‘25
18 Peter Junio.
19 John Baptiste Lafortune.
20 John Baptiste Malast.
21 Joseph Pothier.
22 Alexander Robinson. 1825
23 John K. Clark. 1825
24 David McKee. 1825
25 Joseph Anderson.
26 Joseph Pepot.
27 John Baptiste Beaubien. 1825
28 John Kinzie. 1825
29 Archibald Clybourne.
30 Billy Caldwell.
31 Martin Vansicle.
32 Paul Jamboe.
33 Jonas Clybourne. 1825
34 Edward Ament.
35 Samuel Johnston.

I will now read, you the names of our voters in 1830, showing that only three of the fourteen tax-payers of 1825 then voted:

1 Stephen J. Scott.
2 John B. Beaubien. 1825, 1826
3 Leon Bourassea.
4 B. H. Laughton.
5 Jesse Walker,
6 Medard B. Beaubien.
7 John Baptiste Chavellea.
8 James Kinzie.
9 Russell E. Heacock.
10 James Brown.
11 Jos. Laframboise, 1825, 1826
12 John L. Davis.
13 William See.
14 John Van Horn.
15 John Mann.
16 David Van Eaton.
17 Stephen Mack.
18 Jonathan A. Bailey.
19 Alexander McDollo. [McDole?]
20 John S. C. Hogan.
21 David McKee. 1825, 1826
22 Billy Caldwell. 1826
23 Joseph Thibeaut.
24 Peter Frique.
25 Mark Beaubien.
26 Laurant Martin.
27 John Baptiste Secor. 1826
28 Joseph Bauskey.
29 Michael Welch.
30 Francis Laducier. 1826
31 Lewis Ganday.
32 Peresh Leclerc.

It is a remarkable commentary upon the fickleness of our population, that only six of the men who voted in 1826 voted in 1830; and these six-were half-breeds or Government employes. Father John Kinzie, however, died between the two elections, upon the 6th of January, 1828, aged 65. But there were some not voting at the second election, such as the late Archibald Clybourne, his father Jonas, and half-brother John K. Clark, who ended their days with us. The half-breeds and French who did not vote may have been away on a hunting and trading expedition. The voters in 1826 seem to have understood their true interest, being dependents upon the fort, as every one of them voted the Administration ticket, John Quincy Adams then being President. If there were ever three men in the United States who electrified the whole country with their fiery denunciations of the military power, they were President John Quincy Adams, his Vice-President John C. Calhoun, and his Secretary of State Henry Clay. Neither of the three ever forget Gen. Jackson! It would have seemed malicious, and yet quite pertinent, on the part of the Chicago member of Congress to have asked either of these gentlemen whether it was not a singular fact that, while Mr. Adams was President, the people of Chicago unanimously voted with the fort! Ninian Edwards for Governor, Samuel KL Thompson for Lieutenant-Governor, Daniel P. Cook for Congressman, the Administration candidates, each received thirty-five votes, being all there were. The much-complained-of military power of the present day has never secured a greater unanimity in the colored vote of the South. But four years later, in 1830, when Andrew Jackson was President, there was a material change in the politics of the place. John Reynolds, the Jackson candidate for Governor, received twenty-two out of the thirty-two votes cast. Of the six who voted at both elections, and who voted for the Adams candidate in 1826, five voted for the Jackson candidate in 1830; showing their consistency by each time Voting with the Administration, or more properly with the fort. Billy Caldwell, the Sauganash, the nephew of Tecumseh, voted the Jackson ticket; while Joseph Laframboise, a noted Indian chief, stood out and voted against it. Perhaps Gen. Jackson, in some of the early Indian wars, had caused the death of some of Laframboise’s relatives or friends. Up to 1848, we had the viva voce system of voting in the State of Illinois. Each man went up to the polls, with or without a ticket in his hands, and told whom he wanted to vote for, and the judges so recorded it. But in those days the masses knew as little whom they were voting for as they do now. For the judges often read off the names of the candidates from the tickets, and the voter would nod his head. There was no chance, however, for stuffing the ballot-box under the viva voce system. It may account for the falling off of the vote between 1826 and 1830, that some persons would not vote the Jackson ticket, and yet disliked to vote against the fort. There were four of the Laframboise family voting in 1826, and only one in 1830. The names of voters in 1826 indicate that full three-fourths of them were French and half-breeds. The judges in 1826 were Father John Kinzie, the late Gen. John B. Beaubien, and Billy Caldwell. The clerks were the late Archibald Clybourne and his half-brother John K. Clark. The election was held at the Agency House, in Chicago Precinct, Peoria County. The Agency House was on the North Side, and was the second house built in Chicago, Mr. Kinzie’s being the first. The Indian Agent was Dr. Alexander Wolcott, who died in 1830, son-in-law of Mr. Kinzie.

The election of 1830, was held in the house of James Kinzie, Chicago Precinct, Peoria County. This house was on the West Side, near the forks of the river. The South Side had no status at that time, there being nothing then on that side except the fort and light-house building, and the log-houses of the two Beaubien brothers,—one residing at the lake shore, and one near the forks of the river, with such a marsh between, that, much of the time, their most convenient, way of visiting each other was in boats in the river.

The judges at the election of 1830, were Russell E. Heacock, the first lawyer to settle in Chicago, Gen. John B. Beaubien, one of the judges in 1826, and James Kinzie. The clerks were Medard B. Beaubien, well known in this city, now principal agent of the Pottawatomie tribe of Indians at Silver Lake, Shawnee County, Kansas, and Jesse Walker. The names of voters in 1830, indicate a large influx of the Anglo-Saxon race; but among them was one Irishman, probably the first Irishman who ever trod the Chicago soil.

The first thought that occurred to me was, What could bring an Irishman out here all alone? Who was to help him celebrate St. Patrick’s Day? Who was to attend his wake? His name was Michael Welch. What have our many Irish Aldermen been thinking of, that they have never given us, in honor of their first settler, a Welch avenue, a Welch street, a Welch schoool-house, or a Welch fire-engine? The next thought that occurred to me was, What could he be doing out here all by himself? Now, what would an Irishman naturally do when he found himself here all alone, hundreds of miles distant from any other Irishman? He was a bugler. He blew his horn. He was a discharged soldier, and, having faithfully served out his time, he stopped long enough to vote the straight Jackson ticket, and then joined Captain Jesse Brown’s Rangers and marched on to clear the Indians out of the way of his coming countrymen, who were already aroused by his bugle’s blast, as his patron St. Patrick, centuries before, had cleared the snakes out of his way in the land of his nativity.

Capt. Jesse Brown was a brother of the late Judge Thomas C. Brown, of our Supreme Court, and was authorized by President Jackson to raise a company of men, who were called “Brown’s Rangers,” and was ordered to report to Gen. Stephen W. Kearney, on the Western frontier.

There is a prevailing impression that Irishmen never go anywhere except in squads. But the history of the American Continent will prove that Irishmen have ventured as far alone upon hazardous explorations as any other men. But he dislikes to stay alone. Like the honey-bee, when he finds a good thing, he wants some others to come and help him enjoy it. My original Congressional district extended north to the Wisconsin line, west to the Rock River Valley, south so as to embrace Princeton, LaSalle, Bloomington, Urbana, and Danville. I had to travel all over this district with a horse and buggy, and visit the spare settlements. I often found an Irishman cultivating the soil alone. But when I made a second visit, I found some more Irishmen there, or else the original one had gone. Gov. Winthrop, of Boston, in his journal under date of 1642, tells us of one Darby Field, an Irishman, who could not rest contented after his landing in America until he had climbed to the top of the White Mountains. He was the first man to ascend Mount Washington, and when asked why he went, replied, “Merely to take a look at the country!”

[Page 20]

The official dispatches of one of the battles of the Mexican War commended the conduct of Private Sullivan, of one of our Chicago regiments. In the battle he had advanced before his company, engaged in a single combat with a Mexican officer, and killed him. I called President Polk’s attention to the report, and asked for Sullivan’s promotion. He referred the matter to the Adjutant- General. Time passed along, and no appointment was sent to the Senate. I called upon the Adjutant-General, and he read me a letter from Sullivan’s superior officer, commending his courage and general good conduct, but strongly protesting against his appointment as Lieutenant in the regular army, on account of his deficiency in West Point education. I appealed to the President, and it did not take long to satisfy him that good fighting in war- time would counterbalance all deficiencies in education, and Sullivan was promoted. Some time after the close of the war, his father called upon me, said he had not heard from his son for a long time, and wanted me to find him. Many of you will remember the father, Jeremiah Sullivan, at one time Justice of the Peace,—a tall and well-proportioned gentleman, with as prepossessing a general appearance as any gentleman who walked our streets. I wrote to Washington, and received for answer that Sullivan resigned his Lieutenancy at the close of the war. Inside the official letter was a note marked “private and unofficial.” “Tell Sullivan’s father to read the news from Mexico. I enclose some scraps from a New Orleans newspaper, and the Col. Sullivan therein mentioned is reported to be the late Lieut. Sullivan of the regular army.” Some time afterwards, an officer of the army gave me the following account: After the close of the war with Mexico, some of the officers were tarrying late at dinner, when Lieut. Sullivan entered and was saluted with “Will you join us, Lieut. Sullivan?” “Col. Sullivan, if you please, gentleman,” was the reply. Whereupon one of the officers said, “It will not surprise us at all if you are Col. Sullivan. If your killing that Mexican was of so much account as to put you on an equality with us who have studied four years at West Point, and have seen considerable active service, a little personal favoritism might carry you still higher, and make you a Colonel. Why, Lieut. Sullivan, if you should kill another Mexican, those politicians at Washington would make you Commander-in-Chief!” “Gentlemen,” said Sullivan, “it is business that brings me here. Here is my commission as Colonel in the Mexican revolutionary army, and now you know my authority. And now, here’s my business in this paper, which I will read.” He then read a paper authorizing and requesting him to employ a competent engineer upon his staff. The officers reminded him that they knew nothing of the face of the Mexican country, had no maps, knew not his route, and insisted that they could be of no service to him.

“You do not understand me, gentlemen,” replied Sullivan; “it is not for what I am going to do that I want any of your assistance. I only want you to map it out after I have done it. You are always talking about your military school, and what you have studied, and the like of you will be at school hereafter, and they will want to study Sullivan’s Route to the Capital of Mexico; and if ever I should be Emperor, whom would I want for Secretary of War but my own Engineer?” Sullivan set out upon his march with no one to map out his route. He penetrated regions where no man had ever been before. He came out of forests where men least expected him. He appeared to be everywhere, and the inhabitants could make no calculation where he was not. They either all joined him, or fled before him. He had everything his own way, until, in his efforts to join the main army, he found himself in the fortified country.

Here he missed his engineer and his military education. He was wounded, taken prisoner, marched into the Plaza, a bullet pierced his heart, and that was the last of Sullivan. But it just took a Chicago Irish boy to teach the Emperor Maximilian how to die the death of a soldier some twenty years afterwards; and Sullivan had as much right in Mexico as Maximilian.

There are 67 names upon the two voting-lists of 1825, and 1830. Six voted at both elections, leaving 61 different names, which, with the four on the tax- list of 1825 who did not vote at either election, constitute the 65 from whom our first families are descended.

And as there may be some pride in after years in tracing one’s connection with our first families, the real Knickerbockers of Chicago, 1 have taken some pains to obtain interviews or hold correspondence with such of them as might be living, and with the descendants of such as are dead. Of a very large proportion of them I can obtain no knowledge whatever. I shall publish all their names, and at some future time shall publish what I have ascertained, or may hereafter ascertain, of their history and of their descendants. When it was known, in 1860, that the Prince of Wales was to make Chicago a visit, one of our society-men suggested that it was my duty, as Mayor of the city, to select about a hundred from our first families and give the Prince a ball. I asked him to give the names of the hundred from the first families. This he said he was unwilling to do. I asked him then to give me the names of even ten of our first families, meaning, of course, nine besides his own. This he also declared himself unwilling to do.

But if, at any future time, any one of our society men should wish to make a party from our first families, he may derive some assistance from this lecture.

At this time I think there are but three of those voters-living. One is Medard B. Beaubien, son of the late Gen. John B. Beaubien, of this city, now the leading man among the Pottawatomie Indians, in Kansas. The second is David McKee, now living near Aurora, Ill. He was born in Virginia in 1800, and went to Cincinnati when a young man, as a blacksmith. Under the treaty of Chicago, made with the Indians by Gen. Cass, in 1821, the Government was to keep a blacksmith here, who was to work exclusively for the Indians.

Col. Benjamin B. Kerchival, then Indian Agent, afterwards a prominent citizen of Detroit, went to Cincinnati and employed McKee to come here in that capacity. McKee reached Fort Wayne, and there waited for a guide. At that time the only mail Chicago had was a monthly one to Fort Wayne. He did not wait long before the exploring expedition of Maj. Stephen H. Long reached that place, and he accompanied it to Chicago. Turning to the history of that expedition, by Prof. William H. Keating, of the University of Pennsylvania, I find that orders were issued to Maj. Long, April 25, 1823, for him to commence at Philadelphia, thence to proceed to Wheeling, thence to Chicago or Fort Wayne, thence to Fort Armstrong or Dubuque lead mines, thence up the Mississippi to Fort St. Anthony, etc. The expedition reached Fort Wayne, May 26, 1823, and Prof. Keating speaks of the fort then there as erected in 1814 on the site of the old fort, the location of which had been designated by Gen. Anthony Wayne after his victory over the confederated Indians on the 20th of August, 1794, which gave rise to the treaty of Greenville in the following year. The Professor says also, that the expedition fortunately met at Fort Wayne the express sent from Chicago for letters, and obtained him as guide.

They left Fort Wayne May 29th, 1823. Their cavalcade consisted of seven persons, including the soldier, mail-carrier, and a colored servant; and they had two horses loaded with provisions. On the 5th of June they reached Fort Dearborn, Chicago, having been eight days in traveling the distance of 216 miles, an average of 27 miles a day, their distance exceeding the usual allowance, by 16 miles, in consequence of their circuitous route to avoid the Elkhart River. The railroad train now leaving here at 9 a.m. reaches Fort Wayne at 2 p.m. The post at Chicago was abandoned a few months after the party reached it, in consequence of the rapid extension of the white population westward, and the establishment of a chain of military posts along the Mississippi River, rendering the continuance of the force here unnecessary. An Indian Agent, Dr. Alexander Wolcott, uncle of our present County Surveyor, of the same name, remained here to keep up amicable relations with the Indians, and to attend to their wants, daily becoming greater in consequence of the increasing scarcity of game. Fort Dearborn was not occupied by soldiers again, except temporarily in transit, until 1832, when the Black Hawk troubles broke out. When Mr. McKee came here there were but two houses: one belonging to John Kinzie, the other to his son-in-law, Dr. Alexander Wolcott, the Indian Agent,— Mr. Kinzie’s having been built first. Both houses were built of logs, and lined with cedar bark. The third house was built by Joseph Pothier, a Frenchman, and one of the voters here in 1826, and who until recently was a resident of Milwaukee. He married an Indian half-breed, brought up by Mr. Kinzie, and was striker for Mr. McKee in the blacksmith shop. Mr. McKee was married by Mr. Kinzie, at Mr. Kinzie’s house, and he built the fourth house. All four houses were on the north side of the river.

The inhabitants were soldiers, Frenchmen in the employ of the American Fur Company, and Indians. When the fort was not garrisoned, and the fur-traders were in the country making their purchases, the Indians constituted almost the entire population. In 1827-28, Mr. McKee carried the mail once a month to Fort Wayne. As his Indian pony had to carry the mail-bag and the blankets for him to sleep upon, he could not carry corn for the pony and provisions for himself. He drove the pony in front of him, and cut down an elm or basswood tree for the pony to browse upon during the night. He carried a gun with which he killed the game for his own food. His route was from here to Niles, Mich., thence to Elkhart, Ind., and thence to Fort Wayne. His average trip from this place to Fort Wayne was fourteen days; the quickest time he ever made was ten days. Gen. John McNiel, one of the heroes in the battle of Lundy’s Lane, commanded the fort when Mr. McKee came to Chicago. Soon after his arrival, a sailing vessel, called the Heartless, undertook to enter the mouth of the river, ran ashore, and was beached in the sand. They tried to cut her out, but she went to pieces. About a year thereafter the first vessel entered the harbor, and anchored opposite the fort. It was the United States revenue- cutter Fairplay. When we speak of the first vessel coming to Chicago, there is always a confusion between the vessels that anchored outside and the vessels that actually came up into the river. It is claimed that this United States revenue-cutter Fairplay was the first one to actually enter the river. In 1826, there came here a sailing vessel called the Young Tiger, to enter the river, but she anchored out in the lake, slipped her cable, and went ashore.

Mr. E. Buell, now residing in Clinton County, Iowa, near Lyons, aged 75, claims that he was pilot and navigator on the schooner Aurora, Capt. Titus, that came to Chicago in 1820 or 1821; but he leaves the question unsettled as to whether or not he came up into the river. The steamers which brought here the troops of Gen. Scott, in 1832, had to anchor some distance outside. The persons claiming to have been upon the first vessel that passed over the Chicago bar and came up into the river, are even more numerous than those claiming to be descendants of the persons who had the first white child born in Chicago. I will not discuss this matter now, as the mass of you care less about those who had the first child than you do about those who are to have the next one, and what is to become of it.

The third man now living who voted in Chicago Precinct, Peoria County, in 1830, is our well-known fellow-citizen, Mark Beaubien. He came here in 1826 to visit his brother, John B. Beaubien, who was an employe of the American Fur Company, and who lived in a log-house near the lake-shore, near the mouth of the river, on the South Side. Mark returned to Detroit, and brought his family here, and built him a log-house, fronting the river, on what is known as the “Old Wigwam Lot,” on the corner of Lake and Market streets; it being at that time the only dwelling-house on the South Side, except his brother’s. He constructed it for hotel purposes, and, when the Indian Chief Sauganash learned his design, he told him that Americans named their hotels after big men, and asked him what he was going to call it. Mr. Beaubien took the hint, and said I’ll call it Sauganash!” A few years afterwards, he built a large addition to it, which was the first frame-house built on the South Side. It was in this house that I took my first meal, on my arrival here in 1836, it being then kept by John Murphy. Mr. Beaubien was born in 1800, and in Detroit, where his father was also born; but his grandfather was an emigrant from France. He established the first ferry, at the forks of the river. He was an original fiddler, having inherited the art in the natural way; and he will probably die one. In case of the absence of the music at any of our parties in olden times, Mr. Beaubien was always sent for, and when one fiddle-string broke, he was good for the three; and, when another broke, he could still keep up the music; and if there were only one string left, a party would never go away disappointed if Mr. Beaubien was left to play upon it. He has done much to keep up our first families, having had twenty-three children. His grandchildren had numbered fifty-three when the great-grandchildren began to make their appearance, and he stopped counting. I introduce him to you to-day as the only man you will probably ever see who witnessed the surrender of an American army. God grant that such an event may never happen again! During the War of 1812, Mr. Beaubien’s father, hearing that the town (Detroit) was about to be bombarded by the British army, had ordered his children to go down into the cellar, when news came that Gen. Hull had surrendered. Mark Beaubien saw Gen. Hull and his staff rowed over to the Canadian shore, and then the soldiers were taken over under the charge of the red-coat officials.

Cook County was set off from Peoria County under an act passed in 1831. The first election was in Aug., 1832. The county was named for the Hon. Daniel P. Cook, son-in-law of Gov. Ninian Edwards, who was one of the first United States Senators from this State.

Mr. Cook was a member of Congress from 1820 to 1827, and died in 1827, aged 32, one of the most talented men who ever lived in this State. As our poll- lists of the first election, in 1832, were burnt, I can no longer trace our first families, and those, who wish to marry into them must look back to those who were taxed in 1825, or voted in 1826 or 1830, if they do not wish their honors disputed. Cook County then included the present Counties of Lake, McHenry, DuPage, and Will, all west being included in Jo Daviess County. The only voting-place of Cook County at that time was at Chicago. The highest number of votes cast for all the candidates for any one office in 1832 was 114, against 32 in 1830, and 35 in 1826.

It seems to have been the practice then, as now, to take our officers from Galena, and then, as now, they were very good men.

Galena and Chicago were then in the same Representative and Senatorial Districts. Col. James M. Strode was elected to the Senate, and Benjamin Mills to the House, both being attorneys-at-law at Galena. Elijah Wentworth, Jr., who died at Galesburg, Ill., on the 18th of November last, received all the votes for Coroner at this election. He wrote me, just before his death, that he went with his father, Elijah Wentworth, Sr., from Maine to Kentucky; they moved thence to Dodgeville, Wis., where he was living at the time Jefferson Davis was constructing Fort Winnebago, about 75 miles distant. Davis had been ordered there soon after his graduation at West Point in 1828, and he often visited Dodgeville in attendance upon social parties, and is well remembered by old settlers there, to this day. In 1830, Mr. Wentworth and his father moved to Chicago, and rented a new hotel of James Kinzie, then the best in Chicago, on the West Side, near the forks of the river. It was a log-house, with upright boards upon the outside. He carried the mail from Chicago to Niles, once a month.

At the annual election in August, 1834, the highest number of votes for all the candidates for any one office was 528, against 114 in 1832. Thus our population began to increase. This vote was for the whole County of Cook. In 1835, the highest number of votes in the entire county, for all the candidates for any one office, was 1064. And religious enterprise and liberality had so far advanced that, at the Ladies’ Fair at the old St James, the mother of Episcopacy in the Northwest, on the 18th of June in that year, the receipts were $1,431. In the spring of 1837, at our first municipal election, the city alone cast 709 votes.*

It seems not to be generally known that, up to the time of the opening of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, Chicago was not at all troubled with mosquitoes; a blessing which amply compensated for many of our early deprivations.

*For list of names on the poll-book, see “Fergus’ Directory for 1839.”

[Page 27]

The history of Chicago furnishes one with a complete history of an irredeemable paper-money system. Emigration was fast tending westward in 1835. Government land was $1.25 per acre. The emigrants had little or no-money, and would purchase land on credit at greatly advanced prices. Eastern speculators flocked here and took advantage of this, condition of things. The Government money received for lands would be deposited in the banks, credited to the Government, and then reloaned back to speculators. Thus the Government had credits in banks to more than the amount of their capital, and their assets consisted almost entirely of the notes of Western speculators. The Government was out of debt, and had no use for its surplus, which was forming the basis of those large speculative loans, and men became even more excited and reckless than were the land-operators here in Chicago at the time of the recent panic. Besides, money was taken from every branch of business to invest in these Western speculations. The President of the United States had no power to stop the sales of lands or to limit bank discounts. He saw the immediate necessity of arresting this condition of things, and he had no other way to do it than to issue an order that nothing but gold and silver should be received for the public lands. According to an invariable law, a redundancy of paper had driven the precious metals out of the country, and the banks had not the specie wherewith to redeem their bills, which were fast being presented to obtain land-office money. The banks all failed, and corporations and individuals issued certificates of indebtedness, which were interchanged as currency.

States, counties, and cities paid their debts in warrants upon an empty treasury. The Canal Commissioners paid contractors in scrip, and the contractors paid their laborers in a lesser scrip, redeemable in the scrip of the Commissioners.

Nearly every man in Chicago doing business was issuing his individual scrip, and the city abounded with little tickets, such as “Good at our store for ten cents,” “Good for a loaf of bread,” “Good for a shave,” “Good for a drink,” etc., etc. When you went out to trade, the trader would look over your tickets, and select such as he could use to the best advantage. The times for a while seemed very prosperous. We had a currency that was interchangeable, and for a time we suffered no inconvenience from it, except when we wanted some specie to pay for our postage. In those days it took 25 cents to send a letter East. But after a while it was found out that men were over-issuing. The barber had outstanding too many shaves; the baker too many loaves of bread; the saloon- keeper too many drinks, etc., etc. Want of confidence became general. Each man became afraid to take the tickets of another. Some declined to redeem their tickets in any way, and some absconded. And people found out, as is always the case where there is a redundancy of paper money, that they had been extravagant, had bought things they did not need, and had run in debt for a larger amount than they were able to pay. Of course, nearly everyone failed, and charged his failure upon President Jackson’s specie circular. In after times, I asked an old settler, who was a great growler in those days, what effect time had had upon his views of Gen. Jackson’s circular. His reply was that Gen. Jackson had spoiled his being a great man. Said he, “I came to Chicago with nothing, failed for $100,000, and could have failed for a million, if he had let the bubble “burst in the natural way.”

A single instance will illustrate to what various purposes those little tickets of indebtedness could be put. A boy had a ticket “Good for a drink.” He dropped it into the church contribution-box, and heard no more of it. He told another boy, who did the same thing with the same result. That boy told his sister, who told her mother, who told her husband, who deemed it his duty to tell the Deacon. Meanwhile the boys were putting in the tickets “Good for a drink,” and telling the other boys to do the same. The Deacon, alive to all the responsibilities of his position, for the first time in his life entered a saloon; called the barkeeper one side, and asked him to change a $1 scrip, well knowing he could not do so unless it were in liquor-tickets. The saloon- keeper was afraid to offer such tickets, and declined to make the change, until the Deacon gave him a hint that, although he did not stimulate himself, he thought he could use the tickets. Then, said the Deacon, “I have a curiosity to know the extent of the circulation of these tickets, and really wish you would put a private mark upon them, and notify me when one returns.” Think of a Deacon putting such currency into a contribution-box! But he did it, and the boys put in some more. On Monday afternoon, the Deacon was notified that one of his tickets had been redeemed. Oh, what a chance for a scandal case! Imagine that such a thing had happened in our day!

Think of our enterprising newsgatherers calling upon a Deacon, and asking him what was the average time of a liquor-ticket’s going from his church contribution-box to a saloon! With solemn tread the Deacon made his way to his pastor’s residence, and asked him what disposition he made of the various tickets taken from the contribution-box. The reply was that his wife assorted them, strung them upon different strings, entered them upon a book, and gave the church credit as she used any of them. “And do you say, my dear brother,” asked the Deacon, “that you have no knowledge of the particular uses to which these tickets have been put?” “I do say so,” said the pastor. The Deacon breathed freer. He had cleared his pastor, but I have no doubt he prayed, “May the Lord have mercy on his poor wife!” The wife was called, and her husband said, “The Deacon wishes us to give an account of the proceeds of the contribution-box.” “Not exactly so, my dear sister,” said the Deacon; “but I wish to know for what purposes the liquor-tickets have been used.” She comprehended the matter at once, and promptly replied, “Why, Deacon, did you want them? I never thought you were a drinking man. Now, as you didn’t have the tickets, will you share with us the proceeds? Let us all take a drink!” She rushed to her pantry, brought out a pitcher, with tumblers, and it was filled with milk! In making the change with her milkman his eyes had fallen upon these tickets, and he said he could use them. Thus throwing the liquor- tickets into the contribution-box was but a repetition of the old adage, “Evil be thou my good.” They had discharged all the functions of the modern greenback, even to furnishing a poorly-paid clergyman’s children with milk.

Not long after our Chicago citizens were victimized by another irredeemable currency device. Michigan legislators thought that, while there was not specie enough in the country for a banking basis, there was land enough. So they passed what is known as the “Real Estate Banking Law.” They contended that real estate was better than gold and silver, because a man could not run away with real estate. Chicago merchants, business men, and speculators generally, instead of paying their debts with their money, bought Michigan wild lands, had them appraised, and then mortgaged them for bills, which they brought home to pay their debts with. Real estate, which is generally the first property to feel the effects of inflated currency, soon rose in value, and its owners paid Michigan another visit, secured a higher appraisal of their lands, and exchanged the second mortgage for some more bills. For about a year we had excellent times again in Chicago. But then confidence began to weaken. Agents were sent into the country to buy anything they could, provided Michigan money would be taken. Merchants would post in their windows a list of bills that they would receive for a given day, and then revise the list for the next day. The bubble soon burst, and every one was the poorer for the good times he had enjoyed. Manual labor, which was the last thing to rise, was the last resting- place of the worthless bills.

During all this excitement incident to our great variety of irredeemable paper, our sufferings were the greatest for postage money, which had always to be in specie, and specie was then at from 50 to 100 per cent premium in our depreciated currency. But postage was then reckoned by the sheet instead of by weight. The result was that, although friends wrote but seldom, their letters were a sort of daily journal. When anything occurred to them, they would write it out; and when they had filled a sheet, oftentimes writing crossways also, they mailed it as soon as they could raise the postage. In traveling at the East, I have fallen in with several of these letters written in early times, whose publication would add materially to the early history of our city. But their contents were so mixed up with private matters appertaining to different families that it is impossible to obtain possession of them. As our laboring men were paid in currency, it often took more than a day’s work to pay the postage on a letter to an Eastern friend.

I will relate an anecdote to illustrate this matter. Soon after my first election to Congress, a young man who had rendered me material service, made me a call, and observed that postage was very high; in which sentiment I concurred, and promised to labor to reduce it. He then remarked that I would have the franking privilege; to which I assented, and promised to labor to abolish it. But all this did not seem to interest the young man, and I was perplexed to know the drift of his conversation. Finally, with great embarrassment, he observed that he was engaged to a young lady at the East, and wanted to know if I could not frank his letters. I explained that there was but one way to avoid the responsibilities of the law, and that was for him to write his letters to me, and then I could write a letter to her, calling her attention to his; and she could have the same privilege. The correspondence took this form until the Congressman from her district asked me if, at the close of the session, I was going home by the way of his district. I did not comprehend him until he stated that he was well acquainted in the family of the lady with whom I had been corresponding, and suggested that, if I was going to be married before the next session, it would be pleasant for us to board at the same house! This put a new phase upon my way of dodging an abuse of the franking privilege, and I wrote to my constituent that he must bring his courtship to a close, and he did so. Four letters from him and three from her covered the transaction, and I stand indebted to this day to the “conscience-fund” of the Post-Office Department for $1.75. But this was a very insignificant sum to pay for the securing of a good Yankee girl to the West in those days. Besides, there are seven in the family now, and one went to the War; and that $1.75 was an insignificant bounty to pay for a soldier. After all, the best way to procure soldiers is to breed them yourself. But every time any one speaks to me about the corruptions and defalcations among public men of the present day, I see “mene, mene, tekel, upharsin” written on the wall! I think of that $1.75, and say nothing.

Not satisfied with the real estate banking experiment in Michigan, of trying to make easy times without prompt specie redemption, some of the speculators of Illinois thought that they would try the Michigan system, with State bonds substituted for lands. The result of this last experiment is too familiar to the mass of our citizens to need an extended comment. Money was borrowed, and State bonds were purchased. The most inaccessible places in our State were sought out for the location of banks, and bills were extensively issued. Money was abundant, prices of everything advanced, and a financial millenium was once more among us. The consequences of this system were quite as disastrous as those of the real estate system of Michigan. Considering its age, Chicago has been the greatest sufferer of any place in the world from an irredeemable paper-money system. Its losses in this respect will nearly approximate those from the great fire. And when you talk to one of the early settlers of Chicago about the advantages accruing from an irredeemable money system, you waste your labor. He has been there! One of our early amusements was that of wolf- hunting. Experienced Indian ponies were plenty in our city. The last hunt I remember had for its object the driving of as large a number of wolves as possible up to the ice upon the lake shore, and as near the mouth of the harbor as could be done. There was to be no shooting until the wolves had got upon the ice. No person was to fire unless his aim was entirely over ice, and then to the eastward. Two parties started early in the morning, one following the lake shore south, and the other the river, to meet at a common centre not far from Blue Island. Then they were to spread themselves out, cover as much territory as possible, and drive the wolves before them. About 4 o’clock in the afternoon, a wolf made his appearance in the outskirts of the city. The news was spread, and our people turned out on foot, keeping along the margin of the river, so as to drive the wolves upon the ice of the lake shore.

One wolf after another made his appearance, and soon we saw the horsemen. The number of wolves was about the same as that of Samson’s foxes. The men were so eager to get the first fire at a wolf that the tramp of their horses broke the ice; and, as the wind was rather brisk, it broke away from the shore, with the wolves upon it, and drifted northeasterly, very much in the same direction as that taken by the recent unfortunate balloon. But the wolves, unlike the man in the balloon, took no reporter on board. Men, women, and children lined the bank of the lake, expecting to see the ice break in pieces and the wolves swim ashore.

But it did not do so. Our people watched the ice, and could see the wolves running from side to side, until they faded away from view. When I took my last look, they appeared about the size of mice.

About two weeks afterwards, a letter appeared in a Detroit paper containing an account of some farm settlements, on the eastern shore of Lake Michigan, being attacked by a large body of hungry wolves. They destroyed fowls and cattle, and for several days spread terror through the neighborhood. We always supposed that those were our wolves, but our hunters never laid any claim to them, as the news of their arrival was so long in reaching here. And as an evidence of the tardy transit of merchandise and mails, in those days, I will state that our newspapers of September, 1835, announce the arrival of a schooner, with goods, twenty days from New York City, the shortest time ever made. A newspaper of Dec. 24, 1836, announces that President Jackson’s message to Congress was only twelve days on its route from Washington. It was published here Saturday, but the editor says he would have issued it on Thursday, but for the extreme cold weather.

The first divorce suit in our city was brought in 1835.

Land speculation had become so brisk here in 1835, that from Jan. 4th to Oct. 21st of that year, the papers announce that Augustus Garrett (afterward mayor of the city) had sold land at his auction-rooms to the amount of $1,800,000. Our people had commenced litigation so much that at the commencement of Cook county circuit court in May, 1836, there were 230 cases on the civil docket, and the court sat two weeks. Litigation so increased that in May, 1837, there were 700 cases on the civil docket. The newspapers pointed to the alarming fact that over a million dollars were involved in these cases.

The West Side was the last to advance in population. Although at one time, prior to the city’s incorporation, it undoubtedly had, as it does now, the largest portion of our inhabitants, there were only 97 voters on the whole West Side at our first municipal election. These were mostly from our first families, as there were living there about that time three Indian chiefs, Sauganash, Laframboise, and Robinson, (whose Indian name was Che-che-pin-gua), with occasional visits from Shaboneh; and any number of Indians, French, and mixed breeds related to them. The West Side was the last side to have a piano, but the strains of the fiddle were always to be heard, and the war-dance was no uncommon thing. I remember attending the wedding of one of Laframboise’s daughters. She was married to a clerk in the post-office, and is now the wife of Medard B. Beaubien, heretofore alluded to in this lecture. The clerk was the one who delivered letters, and of course was well known to all our citizens, and was remarkably popular.

He went to the printing office and had 50 cards of invitation struck off. But when people went for their letters, they politely hinted that they expected a card of invitation to the wedding. So he was compelled to go to the printing office and have 50 more struck off. These did not last long, and he had 100 more. Then he said that tickets were of no use, and everybody might come; and about everyone did come. The ceremony was performed by Rev. Isaac W. Hallam, pastor of the St. James’ Episcopal church of this city. Everything was high- toned, well worthy of an Indian chiefs daughter. The house was of no particular use, as it was full and surrounded with people. This wedding made a strong impression on my mind, as it was the first time I ever saw the Indian war-dance.

Some of the guests not only had their tomahawks and scalping-knives, bows and arrows, but a few of them had real scalps which they pretended they had taken in the various Indian wars. Their faces were decorated with all the favorite pictures of the Indians. And some of our young white men and ladies played the part of the Indian so well that it was difficult to distinguish them from the real ones. It has been a wonder to me that, while our professors of music have been inventing so many different kind of dances, none of them have reproduced the Indian war-dance, which to me is much more sensible than nine-tenths of those which are now practiced at so many of our fashionable parties. I presume that the trouble is, that our ladies consider that the Indian war-paint extemporized for the occasion, would interfere with the original paint put on before they left their homes, and which they wished to remain through the evening. One of our young men claimed that, at this wedding, amid the crowd, unperceived, he had clipped a lock from the bride’s long, flowing, raven hair. Some of this hair he had put into a breast pin, and very soon thereafter, these Indian bridal breast-pins were about as thick as were the manufactures from our old court-house bell after the fire. One man who had worn one for some years was suddenly taken sick, and expected to die. He called his wife to his bedside, and told her he deemed it his duty to state to her that he had been deceiving her for years, and he could not die in peace until he had made a confession.

“I must tell you before I die, that the hair in that pin I have been wearing so deceitfully, is not the hair of that Indian chief’s daughter, but your own.”

With pitiful eyes he looked to his wife for forgiveness. “And is that all that troubles you?” said she; “what you have just revealed in your dying hour, only confirms my opinion of you. I always supposed you thought more of me than you did of a squaw!”

And now I suppose you think that that man died in peace. But he did not. He is alive now. There is occasionally an instance where a man has survived a confession to his wife. But where, oh where, is there an instance of a woman who has survived a confession to her husband?

After the marriage of this Indian chiefs daughter, several of our wealthy citizens (wealthy for those days) gave return parties. I remember attending a very elegant one given at the house of Medard B. Beaubien. I think the fashionable society of Chicago subsisted for about two months upon that wedding. Mr. Beaubien has given me several invitations, as he has others of our old settlers, to visit him at his residence among the Pottawatomies. He told me that I would be a big Pottawatomie! He gave as a reason for abandoning Chicago, where he was a merchant, that he would rather be a big Indian than a little white man. He has the reputation of being the handsomest man that was ever in this city. I met him at Washington, a few years ago, and he attracted great attention for his remarkable personal beauty.

The most of the families of wealth, education, and high social position, about the time of our incorporation, were settled on the North Side. The “Lake House” there was the first brick hotel constructed in our city, and it was as well furnished and conducted as any hotel west of New York city. Upon the South Side were most of the business houses, and hotels that were kept for the accommodation of farmers who came to Chicago with their loads of grain. Business men without families, clerks, and employes of business men, generally boarded at these hotels on the South Side, often sleeping in the stores. We could not have anything like a large party on the South Side without female domestics. The fashionable people on the North Side would invite our young men to their parties on that side; but when we had a party on the South Side, instead of coming themselves the ladies would send their domestics. And if I were, to go into details of the origin of the fashionable society of Chicago of the present day, I could satisfy our young men that whether they wanted to make money or raise healthy children, the best thing they could now do would be to imitate the example of some of our early settlers, and marry a lady who dares discharge an impudent or incompetent maid, and can do the work herself till she can get a better one.

There was considerable ill-feeling at one time between the North and South Sides in consequence of this discrimination. But politics then, as now, proved a great leveler in society. There was an elegant party given at the Lake House one evening, where one of the most fashionable men on the North Side, who was a candidate for office, thought he would throw an anchor to the windward by dancing with a South Side dressing-maid, while he supposed his wife was being entertained at the supper-table. But she entered the ball-room while the dance was going on. At once a proud heart was fired. Quicker than thought she spoke to a carriage-driver who stood at the door looking in: “Can you dance, Mike?” “It’s only for the want of a partner,” was the response. Seizing him by the hand, she said, “Come on!” and turning to the crowd she said, “This is a game that two can play at,” and immediately the dance went on, amid the applause of the whole room; the man with the South Side dressing-maid, and his wife with the South Side driver. And thus free suffrage began its work against artificial social position.

Not long after my first election to Congress, upon opening my mail at Washington, I found a letter dated in the-western part of Iowa, then far in the wilderness, reading in this way:

“MY DEAR OLD CHICAGO FRIEND: I see you have been getting up in the world, and it is so with myself, who am the sheriff’s deputy here, and I also keep hotel. I am the same one who made all the fuss dancing with the lady at the Lake House ball, and you were there; and the girl I married is the same domestic, her husband danced with. The judge of the court boards at our house, and he often dances with my wife at the big parties here, where we are considered among the first folks, and I reckon my wife Bridget would put on as many airs as the lady did at the Lake House, if she should catch me dancing with domestics. I found out that those people who made so much fuss at the Lake House were not considered much where they came from. But they emigrated to Chicago, and then set up for big folks. So I thought I would marry Bridget and start for a new country where I could be as big as anybody. And now remember your old Chicago friend, and tell the President that I am for his administration, and would like to get the post-office here.”

I remember that, during that session of Congress I boarded at the same house with Horace Greeley, and he was frequently in my room; and I think that it was from this letter he borrowed his sentiment, “Go west, young man!”

In our early times, it was customary to excommunicate members of the church as publicly as they had been admitted. Now we hear of admissions, but never of excommunications. Professor David Swing has come as near filling that bill as anyone we have heard of recently, but future historians will differ as to whether he excommunicated the church or the church him. I remember in early times here of a clergyman’s dealing, at the close of his service, with a member, one of our well-known citizens, somewhat after this fashion: “You will remember, my hearers, that some time ago Mr. Blank was proposed for admission to this church, and after he had passed a favorable examination I called upon everyone present to know if there was any objection, and no one rose and objected. It becomes my painful duty now to pronounce the sentence of excommunication upon him, and to remand him back to the world again with all his sins upon his head.” Whereupon a gentleman rose in his pew and said: “And now the world objects to receiving him!” On which bursts of laughter filled the house; and the precise status of that man was never determined, as the civil courts in those days had not begun to interfere in ecclesiastical matters. In these times the church would undoubtedly have called upon the courts to grant a mandamus upon the world to receive him, or the world would have applied for an injunction to prevent the church from excommunicating him.

In most new settlements there can always be pointed out some particular class who give tone to the early society; such as the Pilgrims and Puritans of New England, the Knickerbockers of New York, the Huguenots of South Carolina, the Creoles of New Orleans; and, in the later days, men identified with manufacturing interests, mining interests, railroad interests, or with seminaries of learning. But here in Chicago, in early times, we had not any one prevailing class or interest; nor was there any sufficient number of people from any particular locality to exercise a controlling influence in moulding public sentiment. We had people from almost every clime, and of almost every opinion. We had Jews and Christians, Protestants, Catholics, and infidels; among Protestants, there were Calvinists and Armenians. Nearly every language was represented here. Some people had seen much of the world, and some very little. Some were quite learned, and some very ignorant. We had every variety of people, and out of these we had to construct what is called society. The winters were long; no railroads, no telegraphs, no canal, and all we had to rely upon for news were our weekly newspapers. We had no libraries, no lectures, no theatres or other places of amusement. If a stranger attended a gathering of any kind, the mass of attendants were equally strangers with himself; and the gentlemen outnumbered the ladies by about four or five to one. You ask what society lived upon in those days? I answer, upon faith. But faith without works is dead. From the close to the opening of navigation, nearly six months in the year, we had nothing to do. Our faith consisted principally in the future of Chicago. Nearly every one had laid out a town, and men exchanged lots with each other, very much as boys swap jack-knives. The greatest story-teller was about as big a man: as we had. If a new story was told, it was soon passed all round town, and due credit given to the originator. If a new book appeared in our midst, that was loaned around until another new one came to take its place.

Occasionally, one of our young men would go East and get him a wife, and then we discussed her for a while. Dressmakers would invariably make her the first call, examine her dresses, and then go from door to door, like a modern census- taker or tax-collector, soliciting orders according to the latest fashions.

There was great prejudice between the emigrants from the South and those from the East. All our Eastern people were considered by the emigrants from the South as Yankees. The first contest was about the convention system in politics. Southerners denounced it vehemently as a Yankee innovation upon the old system of allowing every man to run for office who wanted to do so, and taking his chances. Their system was to solicit their friends to solicit them to run for office, and then they reluctantly consented, and placed themselves in the hands of their friends. All Yankee customs, fashions, and innovations upon their established usages were ridiculed as Yankee notions, worthy only of the peddlers of wooden clocks and pewter spoons.

Thomas Ford, born in Uniontown, Penn., in 1800, who had lived in Illinois from 1804, and whose father had been killed by the Indians, came here as Judge, and did more than any other person to mollify the prejudices of the South against the North. He early foresaw that all that the early settlers of Illinois needed, was the growth of more Yankee thrift among them; and he early told his friends that while he stayed here he was going to conform to all the Yankee notions, as fast as he could ascertain what they were, and wanted his acquaintances to inform him what he should do to prevent embarrassment by non- conformity. I met him on his way to Court one morning, and he said he had just been detained by a lady complaining that he did not attend her party on a previous evening. He told her that he was very fond of parties, and always attended them whenever he could, but that he held Court that evening until it was too late to go. But this did not satisfy her. She wanted to know, if he could not attend, why he did not send a “regret.” He did not understand the matter, and made an excuse that the Court was waiting, informing her that he would converse with her some other time. “But,” said he, “what’s that? What did she want me to do when I couldn’t go?” I informed him that the lady had some sisters visiting her from the East, and she had a pride in having them write home that among her friends were the very best people in Chicago, and among them the Judge of the Court; which in his absence, a little note from him would establish.

“Capital, capital,” said he. “Why you Yankees have a motive in all you do. You turn everything to account. The longer I live among Yankees the more I see why it is that they are getting rich and overrunning the country. Nobody shall complain of me hereafter in that respect. Ill have some note-paper in my desk, and if the lawyers detain me, I’ll send the Sheriff with one of those little billet-doux. If there is any other thing that you Yankees want me to do to testify my high appreciation of you, please let me know.” The next day the Judge called at my office with a beautiful little note, on gilt-edged paper, addressed to his wife, and reading as follows: “Judge Ford’s compliments to Mrs. Ford and the children, and regrets that he cannot be home to have the pleasure of their society on Monday next.” Below this was the following postscript: “The above is one of the Yankee notions, and when you want to go anywhere and cannot, you must always send one of these, which they call a ‘regret.’ Please tell this to the neighbors, and also tell them that when I return I shall have a great many stories to tell them about different Yankee notions.”

Not long after, I was at Oregon, Ogle County, where he resided, and where he was then holding Court. When it became time for the Sheriff to adjourn the Court, the Judge said, “Mr. Sheriff, don’t forget that party at my house to- night.” And the Sheriff exclaimed, “Hear ye! Hear ye! The Judge of this Court requests me to say, that he and his lady would be pleased to see you all at his house to-night, both citizens and strangers! Now this honorable Court stands adjourned until to-morrow morning at 9 o’clock.”

It was wonderful to notice the mixture of people who unceremoniously visited him that evening—attorneys, jurors, suitors, and citizens generally, with their wives. One person seemed as much at home as another. There was a grand welcome for all. He was the very prince of hospitality. His small house could not contain the crowd, and many stood outside and mingled in the entertainments.

The Judge passed through the assembly with a waiter on which was a decanter of Madeira wine, and wine-glasses. His wife passed around with another waiter loaded with cake. Said the Judge to some Yankee gentlemen, “This is the way we original Illinoisans give a party. We invite all; the latch-string is out; all come who can, and those who cannot come say nothing. They never write any regrets. Indeed, a great many of our prominent men at the South could not do it. I have known men in our Legislature who could not write.” Then he passed away into a group of people who were natives of the South, and told them how he got himself into trouble with a Chicago lady by not writing her a little billet-doux explaining to her why he did not go to her party, when he wanted to go more than she wanted to have him. He often uttered the sentiment that he did not wish to live in a locality where his house was not large enough to entertain his neighbors without making selections. He said he must either build him a larger house or move into a distant settlement. When I came away I expressed the wish that I might soon have the pleasure of seeing him and his neighbors in Chicago.

Whereupon the Judge jocosely observed, “We will either come and see you or send you a billet-doux.” But a Southern Illinoisan, a native of North Carolina, exclaimed, “Yes, when you Yankee peddlers are putting up wooden clocks and pewter spoons for this region, tell them to put up a little gold- edged note-paper for us, and have them to be sure that the gold isn’t bronze!”

But the people of this State settled the house question for Judge Ford. For, at the next Gubernatorial election, he was made its Chief Magistrate, and as Governor he rendered his name dear to every Illinoisan by his almost superhuman, but eminently successful, efforts to complete the Illinois and Michigan Canal, and to restore the lost credit of our State. He died not long after the expiration of his term of office, and left to his children only the proceeds of the copyright of his History of Illinois,—a book which, when once commenced, no reader will lay aside until he has finished it. In this work is the only authoritative history of the settlement of the Mormons in this State, and their final expulsion of it, with the assassination of their leader, Joseph Smith.

In his preface he says: “The author has written about small events and little men. And in all those matters in which the author has figured personally, it will be some relief to the reader to find that he has not attempted to blow himself up into, a great man.”

One of our most reliable places of entertainment was the Post-Office while the mail was being opened. The Post-Office was on the west side of Franklin street, cornering on South Water street. The mail coach was irregular in the time of its arrival, but the horn of the driver announced its approach. Then the people would largely assemble at the Post-Office, and wait for the opening of the mails, which at times, were very heavy. The Postmaster would throw out a New York paper, and some gentleman with a good pair of lungs and a jocose temperament would mount a dry-goods box and commence reading. Occasionally I occupied that position myself.

During exciting times, our leading men would invariably go to the Post-Office themselves, instead of sending their employes. The news would be discussed by the assemblage, and oftentimes heavy bets would be made, and angry words passed. If it was election times, there would be two papers thrown out, of opposite politics, two reading stands established, two readers engaged, and the men of each party would assemble around their own reader. This condition of things would last until the mails were opened, when the gathering would adjourn until the next blowing of the driver’s horn. This gathering afforded the best opportunity for citizens to become acquainted one with another.

On one of these occasions, I was introduced to a Lieutenant in the army who had just come to take charge of the Government works in this city. He had great confidence in our future, and expressed his intention to invest all his means here. He was eventually ordered away to some other station, but kept up his interest in Chicago. His taxes became high, too high in proportion to his pay as an army officer and the support of his family. His wife had once placed the price of a new dress in a letter which was to leave by the return of a mail which brought her husband an exorbitant tax-bill. He expressed his intention of ordering, by the same mail, the sale of his Chicago property, as his means could endure his taxes no longer. His wife ordered her letter from the mail, took out the money, and, saying that she preferred the Chicago property to a new dress, insisted that he should use it to pay his Chicago taxes. The next summer he visited our city, and rented his property for enough to pay the taxes. That lady lost her dress for that year, but she gained thereby one of the largest and most celebrated (Kingsbury) estates in our city. I mention this fact to warn our ladies that they should never ask for a new dress until they find their husband’s tax-receipt in his wallet; and, at the same time, I would caution husbands not to try to carry so much real estate as to make their poorly-clad wives and children objects of charity when they make their appearance in the streets.

Our early settlers were distinguished for their liberal patronage of all religious denominations, and we had one clergyman who created as much sensation as any we have had since his day. Like all really influential sensational preachers, he was an original.

He dealt freely in pathos and in ridicule. If we cried once, we were sure to laugh once, in every sermon. Unlike clergymen now called sensational, he never quoted poetry, nor told anecdotes, nor used slang phrases, for the purpose of creating a laugh. There was nothing second-handed about him. I allude to Rev. Isaac T. Hinton, a Baptist clergyman, who was the only settled minister on the South Side when I came here in 1836. His residence was near the corner of VanBuren street and Fifth avenue, then in the outskirts of the city, and was shaded by native oaks. He was a man who never seemed so happy as when he was immersing converted sinners in our frozen river or lake. It is said of his converts that no one of them was ever known to be a backslider. If you could see the cakes of ice that were raked out to make room for baptismal purposes, you would make up your mind that no man would join a church under such circumstances unless he joined to stay. Immersions were no uncommon thing in those days. One cold day, about the first part of February, 1839, there were 17 immersed in the river at the foot of State street. A hole about 20 feet square was cut through the ice, and a platform was sunk, with one end resting upon the shore. Among the 17 was our well-known architect, John M. VanOsdell, alderman-elect, said to be now the only survivor. There are many now living who were baptized by Mr. Hinton; among them is the wife of Hon. Thomas Hoyne, mayor-elect. But recently our Baptist friends have made up their minds that our lake has enough to do to carry away all the sewerage of the city, without washing off the sins of the people. It is also claimed for Mr. Hinton that no couple he married was ever divorced. He was just as careful in marrying as he was in baptizing; he wanted nobody to fall from grace.

It was the custom in those days to give clergymen donation parties. Now, we have surprise parties, where the lady is expected to endanger her health by hard-working all day in order to prepare her house for a surprise in the evening. The only surprise about them is the magnificence of the preparations. Then the party was advertised in the newspapers, and a notice posted in the vestibule of the church.

It was customary in those days for all denominations to patronize liberally the clergymen of other denominations.

Mr. Hinton had a family of children nearly grown up, and consequently all the young people, as well as the old, would be there to have a grand frolic at his donation party. There were no religious services, and the house was completely taken possession of by the multitude. People would send just what they happened to have, and it would look at times as if Parson Hinton was going into the storage business. Cords of wood would be piled before the door; flour, salt, pork, beef, box-raisins, lemons, oranges, herring, dry-goods, anything and everything. After the donation party was over, there was always a large quantity left which he did not need, but he knew exactly where to place it— among the destitute of the city. Probably no occasions are remembered with more pleasure by the old settlers of this city than those gatherings at the hospitable mansion of the jolly English preacher, with his attractive laugh, who always enjoyed a good story, and could generally tell a better one. There are many married couples in this city who will tell you that there was where they first met.

The first Sabbath I passed in this city, my good boarding-house mistress (Mrs. John Murphy, present on this platform to-day) took me with her to his church, as was the custom of Christian ladies with strange young men in those days. He told me that godliness was profitable unto all things; and he was right. Christian men and women have not kept up this good old custom of taking young men, strangers in the city, to church with them, and using their efforts to lead them to a high social position with their religious instruction. Strange young men now in this city are told that there is a moral infirmary opened here, entirely for their benefit, where the seats are all free, and men are supported expressly to save such as they are from destruction. I never knew a young man to amount to anything if he had no respect for his social position; and that position can never be attained where young men are turned away for religious instruction, to places to visit which they would not think of inviting a young lady to leave a respectable church to accompany them. All honor to those clergymen and Christians of Chicago who have their weekly- church sociables, where young men are brought forward into respectable social intercourse, as well as moral development. The celebrated Indian chief, Black Hawk, covered the whole ground when he said to Gen. Jackson, “You are a man, and I am another!”

Not feeling able to sustain the expense of a whole pew, I engaged one in partnership with an unpretending saddle and harness maker (S. B. Cobb), who, by a life of industry, economy, and morality, has accumulated one of the largest fortunes in our city, and still walks our streets with as little pretense as when he mended the harnesses of the fanners who brought the grain to this market from our prairies. The church building in those days was considered a first-class one, and we had a first-class pew therein, and the annual expense of my half of the pew was only $12.50 more than it would have been in our Saviour’s time. People wonder at the rapid increase in the price of real estate at the west; but it bears no comparison with the increase in the price of gospel privileges. A good clergyman is well worth all that a liberal-hearted congregation may see fit to pay him. But the people ought to cry out against the reckless waste of money, steadily increasing, in the erection of extravagant church edifices. And the pride in such matters seems to eat up all other considerations. During the recent panic, a Christian lady of this city, with a large family of children, whose husband was suddenly reduced from opulence to penury, astonished me by observing, with tears in her eyes, that her most grievous affliction was that she would be compelled to give up her pew in the church, which was one of the most expensive in the city, and take one in a cheaper edifice. And yet our people sing in every church, “God is present everywhere!”

At the close of service one day, Parson Hinton said he thought Chicago people ought to know more about the devil than they did.

Therefore he would take up his history, in four lectures; first, he would give the origin of the devil; second, state what the devil has done; third, state what the devil is now doing; and fourth, prescribe how to destroy the devil. These lectures were the sensation for the next four weeks. The house could not contain the mass that flocked to hear him, and it is a wonder to me that those four lectures have not been preserved. Chicago newspaper enterprise had not then reached here. The third evening was one never to be forgotten in this city; as it would not be if one of our most eminent clergymen, with the effective manner of preaching that Mr. Hinton had, should undertake to tell us what the devil is doing in this city to-day. The drift of his discourse was to prove that everybody had a devil; that the devil was in every store, and in every bank, and he did not even except the church. He had the devil down outside and up the middle of every dance; in the ladies’ curls, and the gentlemen’s whiskers. In fact, before he finished, he proved conclusively that there were just as many devils in every pew as there were persons in it; and if it were in this our day, there would not have been swine enough in the Stock-Yards to cast them into. When the people came out of church, they would ask each other, “What is your devil?” And they would stop one another in the streets during the week, and ask, “What does Parson Hinton say your devil is?” The fourth lecture contained his prescription for destroying the devil. I remember his closing:

“Pray on, brethren and friends; pray ever. Fight as well as pray.
Pray and fight until the devil is dead!
The world, the flesh, the devil,
Will prove a fatal Snare,
Unless we do resist him,
By faith and humble prayer.”

In this grand contest with his Satanic Majesty, he, our leader, fought gloriously, but he fell early in the strife. We, his hearers, have kept up a gallant fight to this day, but, judging by our morning papers, the devil is still far from being dead. Yet we dealt him some heavy blows at the recent election!

An interesting institution was the ferry-boat between the North and South Sides. It was a general intelligence office. Business was done principally upon the South Side, while most of the dwelling-houses were upon the North Side. The ferryman knew about every person in town, and could answer any question as to who had crossed. The streets had not then been raised to their present grade, nor the river deepened or widened, and the boat was easily accessible to teams. It was pulled across by a rope, and was not used enough to kill the green rushes which grew in the river. If a lady came upon the South Side to pass an evening, she would leave word with the ferryman where her husband could find her. Bundles and letters were left with him to be delivered to persons as they passed. He was a sort of superannuated sailor, and if he had not sailed into every port in the world, he had a remarkable faculty of making people think he had. His fund of stories was inexhaustible, and he was constantly spinning his interesting yarns to those who patronized his institution. Like most sailors, he could not pull unless he sung, and to all his songs he had one refrain with a single variation. His voice was loud and sonorous. If he felt dispirited, his refrain was, “And I sigh as I pull on my boat.” If he felt jolly (and people took particular pains to make him so), his refrain was, “And I sing as I pull on my boat.” All night long this refrain was disturbing the ears of those who dwelt near the banks of the river. Song after song was composed for him, in the hope of changing his tune, but it would not be long before he would attach to it his usual refrain. One of our musical composers composed a quadrille, which our young folks used to dance in the evening on the ferry, during certain portions of which they would all join in old Jack’s refrain, and sing, “And we’ll dance as we ride on the boat.” There was a little boy who took great delight in Jack’s company, whose parents lived on the margin of the river near the ferry, and as in the last of his sickness he was burning with a violent fever, nothing would quiet him but the sound of old Jack’s voice. Old Jack had just sung, “And I sigh as I pull on my boat,” when the boy whispered his last words to his mother, “And I die while Jack pulls on his boat!” Jack heard of this, and his lungs became stronger than ever. Racking both his memory and his imagination for songs, for weeks all night long he sung, with his plaintive refrain “Charlie dies while Jack pulls on his boat.” A distinguished poetess traveling at the west about this time, was tarrying at the Lake House, and heard of the incident. She wrote for a New York magazine some beautiful lines appropriate to the last words of the child and the circumstances. These were reproduced in our Chicago papers, but I have in vain sought to find them. Some of our old scrap-books undoubtedly contain them, and I would like to be the instrument of their republication.

Old Jack went to church one Sunday, and the clergyman preached from the text, “Whosoever shall be ashamed of Me and My words, of him shall the Son of Man be ashamed when He shall come in His own glory.” After church was over, the clergyman took Jack to task for making so much noise on his ferry-boat, and told him he was going to have him removed. “You can’t do it,” said Jack. “Why not?” said the clergyman. “Your sermon, sir, your sermon! You said we must make a practical application of it.” “How can you apply that to your position?” “In this way,” said Jack; “the Mayor appoints a ferryman. I will just tell him, he that is ashamed of me and of my boat, of him will I be ashamed when I go to the polls on the day of election!” Jack was not removed. But he went one fall to the south with the robins; but, unlike the robins, he returned no more. He probably saw the coming bridge.

It was customary during the winter to give a series of dancing-parties at central points between here and the Fox River, along the line of some of our main traveled roads, notices of which were generally given in the newspapers. We used to have much more snow than we have now, and large sleigh-loads of people would be fitted out from the city, to meet young people from different parts of the country. People in the country settlements were generally emigrants from the more cultivated portions of the east.

United States Senator Silas Wright once told me that he could enumerate a hundred families, the very flower of the agricultural interest of St. Lawrence County, who had emigrated to west of Chicago. These settlers were not always poor; they were often men of large families who came here to obtain a large quantity of contiguous land, so as to settle their children around them. The custom at these parties was to leave Chicago about 4 o’clock in the afternoon, take supper on the way out and engage breakfast for the morning; and, after dancing all night, getting back to the city about 9 or 10 o’clock.

The hotels in the country were frequently built of logs, but whether of logs or boards, were generally built in one style. Cooking-rooms, bar-room, sitting- rooms, were below, and above was one large hall, which could be used for religious services on Sunday, or public meetings on a weekday, and, by suspending blankets, could be divided into sleeping-rooms. Above was the attic, which could be used for storage when the hall was cleared, and also for dressing-rooms at parties. Ladies and gentlemen could more easily find their wearing apparel when suspended from nails driven into the beams of the building than they can now from the small dressing-rooms where the clothing is in constant danger of being mixed together, I remember one of those occasions when the country residents had begun the dance before those from the city had reached there. Country ladies were passing up and down the ladder to the dressing-room. But the city ladies would not ascend the ladder until it had been fenced around with blankets. There were always on these occasions mothers present from the country, who attended the young people to look after the care of their health, such as seeing that they were properly covered on their going home from a warm room, as physicians were very scarce in the country, and it was a great distance for many of them to send for medicines. These country matrons took it much to heart that the young ladies from the city were so particular in having the ladder fenced off, and were very free in the expression of their views on the subject to the elderly gentlemen present. During the evening a sleigh-load was driven up containing a French danseuse from Chicago, of considerable note in those days; and it was not long after she entered the hall before the floor was cleared for her to have an opportunity to show her agility as a fancy dancer. When she began to swing around upon one foot, with the other extended, one of these country matrons, with a great deal of indignation, ran across the hall to her son, and said, “I don’t think it is proper for our young folks to see any such performance as this, and now you go right down and tell the landlord that we want some more blankets,” and the boy started before the last part of the sentence was heard, “and I’ll have her fenced off by herself, as the city ladies did the ladder!” Her remarks were passed from one to another, and the company was loudly applauding them, when the applause was greatly increased by the entrance of the landlord with some blankets under his arm. The more the applause increased, the more animated became the danseuse, who took it all for herself. The fancy dance was finished, but the merriment had such an effect that one of our city young men took down the blankets around the ladder, and for the remainder of the evening the exposed ladder and the nimble French danseuse ceased to attract attention.

I have thus made you a few selections from my large casket of reminiscences of the amusements of early Chicago. But I give them as a mere appendix to my historical lecture, and do not wish them considered as any part of it, as I could have ended without them, and then have given you a lecture of ordinary length. If anyone thinks them inappropriate to this occasion, I wish to say that I respectfully concur in his views. If, however, they have served to compensate any of you for the tedium of the more historical portion of it, I will waive the question of their appropriateness, and express my gratification at having given them.

[Page 50]

SUPPLEMENTAL NOTES.

After MR. WENTWORTH’S Lecture had been published in the newspapers, he received the following information:

FROM FULTON COUNTY.

The County Commissioners’ Court met, for the first time, 3 June, 1823. July 5, 1823, John Kinzie was recommended for Justice of the Peace, at Chicago. Sept. 2, 1823, Ordered that an election be held at John Kinzie’s house, for one major and company officers in 17th Regiment of Illinois Militia; John Kinzie, Alexander Wolcott, and John Hamlin to conduct said election, upon the last Saturday in September instant.

June 3, 1823, Ordered by the Court, that Amherst C. Rausam be recommended to fill the office of Justice of the Peace, vice Samuel Fulton, resigned. He qualified before the Clerk of the Circuit Court of Fulton Co., July 2, 1823.

If he resided at Chicago, he robs John Kinzie of the honor of being our first Justice of the Peace.

July 5, 1823, Ordered that the Treasurer pay to A. C. Rausam the sum of four dollars, for taking a list of the taxable property at Chicago, in said County, and collecting the same, so soon as he (the said Rausam) shall pay the same over to the County Treasurer, in such money as he received.

Sept. 3, 1823, Ordered that Amherst C. Rouseur [Rausam?] hand over to County Treasurer amount of tax received and collected at Chicago, in same kind of money he received.

April 27, 1824, Sheriff Eads released from paying money-tax collected at Chicago by Rousseur [Rausam?]

It is so hard to decypher these French names in American manuscripts that this name may not be the correct one. There was a Eustache Roussain and also a Captain Ransom in the employ of the American Fur Company, in this region, in 1821.

It may be that he was not a defaulter, but collected his taxes in furs, local money, etc., and refused to give them up until he received his four dollars in cash. The same name appears as grand juror, October, 1823.

Among the grand jurors, in October, 1823 and April, 1824, were Elijah Wentworth, Sr. In Sept., 1824, Hiram, son of Elijah Wentworth, Sr., was added. In March and Sept., 1824, Elijah Wentworth, Jr. (our first Coroner), and John Holcomb (who married his sister), were upon the petit jury. The Wentworths were then living in what is now Fulton Co. Whence they removed to Dodgeville, Wisconsin, and did not come to Chicago until 1830.

CHICAGO MARRIAGES RECORDED IN FULTON CO.

By John Hamlin, J. P., July 20, 1823, Alexander Wolcott and Ellen M. Kinzie.

By same, October 3rd, 1823, John Ferrel and Ann Griffin.

[The Clerk sends this as a Chicago marriage; but I can learn nothing of the parties.]

It is claimed that the marriage of Dr. Wolcott, Indian agent here, in 1823, was the first in Chicago. He died in 1830, voting on the 24th July, of that year. His widow, daughter of John Kinzie, married George C. Bates, of Detroit, Mich. He is now living in Salt Lake City. Col. Thomas Owens was afterwards Indian agent, and may have succeeded him. Charles Jewett of Kentucky, was Dr. Wolcott’s predecessor, and our first Indian agent.

John Hamlin died at Peoria, in April of this year. A writer in the Peoria Transcript says, that in 1823, he accompanied William S. Hamilton to Green Bay, where he had a contract to supply Fort Howard with beef, and he arrived there July 2d, 1823. On his way back, Mr. Hamlin performed the marriage ceremony. Whilst here, he made an engagement with John Crafts to enter the service of the American Fur Company, which frequently brought him to Chicago.

NOTES UPON THE TAX PAYERS OF 1825.

1. Gen. John B. Beaubien was living at Macinac when the Fort there was surrendered to the British, in 1812. He married a sister of the Indian Chief, Joseph Laframboise, was brought here in 1819, by the American Fur Company to oppose Mr. Crafts, had several children (some of whom now live here), was one of the principal men in the employ of the American Fur Co., and his last wife with several of his children was upon the platform at the delivery of this lecture. I attended the marriage of his daughter, in early days, to N. D. Woodville.

2. Jonas Clybourne came from Pearlsburgh, Giles Co., Virginia, with sons Archibald and Henley. Archibald came in 1823 and went back to Virginia for his father’s family. His widow, who was a Miss Galloway, from the region now known as Marseilles, LaSalle Co., Illinois, was on the platform at the delivery of this lecture, and has several children. Henley Clybourne married Sarah Benedict, and has two sons living at Fort Scott, Kansas. Archibald Clybourne was Justice of the Peace in 1831.

3. John K. Clark, was half brother to Archibald Clybourne, and married Permelia, daughter of Stephen J. Scott, who now lives, his widow, at Deerfield, Lake Co., Ill., with her daughter. There was no son to live to have children.

4. John Crafts was a trader sent here by Mr. Conant, of Detroit, and had a trading house at Hardscrabble, near Bridgeport, and monopolized the trade until the American Fur Company sent John B. Beaubien here in 1819. In 1822, Mr. Crafts went into the employment of the Fur Company as superintendant, Mr. Beaubien being under him. He died here single in 1823, at Mr. Kinzie’s house, and he succeeded him. Prior to this, Mr. Kinzie was a silver-smith and made trinkets for the Indians.

5. Jeremie Claremont was employed by the American Fur Company in 1821, for the trade of the Iroquois River.

8 & 9. Claude and Joseph Laframboise were brothers. The widow of the latter was living, at last dates, with her son-in-law, Medard B. Beaubien, at Silver Lake, Shawnee Co., Kansas.

11. Peter Piche, is believed to have been the one who lived at Piche’s Grove, near Oswego, Illinois, alluded to by Mrs. Kinzie in her “Waubun.”

14. Antoine Oilmette is the person spoken of in Mrs. Kinzie’s book, “Waubun.” His daughter Elizabeth, married Jan. 23, 1827, our first Irishman, Michael Welch.

NOTES UPON THE VOTERS OF 1826.

1. Augustine Banny, said to have been a travelling cattle dealer, supplying Forts.

2. Henry Kelly, had no family here, worked for Samuel Miller.

4. Cole Weeks, American, was a discharged soldier, had no family, worked for John Kinzie. He married the divorced wife of Caldwell, brother of the first wife of Willis Scott. Caldwell had a fondness for Indian hunting and trading, and is supposed to have gone off and died with them. A man, answering his description, by the name of Caldwell, was living, not long since, at Kershena, Shawanaw Co., Wisconsin. Caldwell’s wife, who married Cole Weeks, was sister to Benjamin Hall, of Wheaton, DuPage Co., Ill., and Caldwell was cousin to Archibald Clybourne, and came from the same place in Virginia. 14. Francis Laducier, had no family, died at Archibald Clybourne’s.

21. Joseph Pothier, married Victor Miranda, a half breed, was brought up in John Kinzie’s family, was living recently at Milwaukee.

24. David McKee, lives at Aurora, Kane Co., Ill., and married 23 January, 1827, Wealthy, daughter of Stephen J. Scott. He was born on Hog Creek, Pewtown, Loudoun Co., Virginia, in 1800.

25. Joseph Anderson, had no family.

31. Martin VanSicle, was living recently near Aurora, Ill. He had a daughter, Almira. Willis Scott remembers going to Peoria for a marriage license for her.

34. Edward Ament, was living recently not far from Chicago; some say in Kankakee Co., Ill.

The most of those having French names were employes of the American Fur Company, or hunted and traded on their own responsibility; and, when Chicago was abandoned as a Fur Trading Post, they moved further into the frontier country, in pursuit of their business.

NOTES UPON THE VOTERS OF 1830.

1. Stephen J. Scott was born in Connecticut, moved to Chicago from Bennington, Wyoming Co., N.Y., lived many years at Naperville, Ill., and died there, where his son Williard now lives. His son Willis now lives in Chicago, and was upon the platform when this lecture was delivered. Several of his daughters are mentioned in these notes.

4. Barney H. Laughton, lived in his last days near what is now Riverside, on the O’Plaine River, and his wife was sister to the wife of our first Sheriff, Stephen Forbes.

5. Jesse Walker, was a Methodist preacher, finally settled at Walker’s Grove, now Plainfield, in this State.

8. James Kinzie, was natural son of John Kinzie. His mother and Archibald Clybourne’s mother were sisters. His first wife was Rev. William See’s daughter. He died at Racine, Wis., where his second wife is said to be now living. His own sister Elizabeth Kinzie married Samuel Miller, the hotel keeper.

9. Russell E. Heacock, died at Summit, Cook Co., Ill., in 1849, and he has sons in this vicinity.

12. John L. Davis, said to have been an Englishman, and a tailor.

17. Stephen Mack, son of Major Mack of Detroit, married an Indian, was clerk in the employ of the American Fur Company, and finally settled in Pickatonica, Winnebago Co., in this State.

18. Jonathan A. Bailey, was father-in-law to the Post Master, John S. C. Hogan. Mr. Hogan held the office until 1837, when Sidney Abell was appointed. Mr. Hogan died in Memphis, Tenn., in 1866. Mr. Bailey was Postmaster before Hogan.

19. Alexander Mc, is written plain enough; but whether the last part is Dollo, Dole, Donell, Dowtard, etc., it is difficult to tell, as it is written so differently in different places.

27 & 28. John Baptiste Secor and Joseph Bauskey, died of cholera in 1832. Bauskey married a daughter of Stephen J. Scott.

32. Peresh LeClerc, was an Indian interpreter, brought up by John Kinzie.

MORE RETURNS FROM PEORIA COUNTY.

The Clerk of Peoria Co. has sent me the following, which are not alluded to in the lecture:

SPECIAL FLECTION

For Justice of the Peace and Constable, at the house of James Kinzie, in the Chicago Precinct of Peoria County, State of Illinois, on Saturday, 24th day of July, 1830.

Total, John S. C. Hogan, for Justice of the Peace, 33 votes, Archibald Clybourne, 22 votes, Russell Rose, 1 vote. Total, 56.

For Constable, Horatio G. Smith, 32 votes, Russell Rose, 21 votes, John S. C. Hogan, 1 vote. Total, 54.

1 James Kinzie.
2 Jean Baptiste Beaubien. 1825, ’26
3 Alexander Wolcott. 1825
4 Augustin Bannot. [Banny?] 1826
5 Medard B. Beaubien.
6 Billy Caldwell. 1826
7 Joseph Laframboise. 1825, 1826
8 John Mann.
9 John Wellmaker.
10 Stephen J. Scott.
11 Thomas Ayers.
12 Russell Rose.
13 Lewis Ganday or Louis Gauday.
14 Michael Welch.
15 William P. Jewett.
16 John VanHorn.
17 Gabriel Acay.
18 Joseph Papan.
19 Williard Scott.
20 Peter Wycoff.
21 Stephen Mack.
22 James Galloway, [father of Mrs, Archibald Clybourne.]
23 David VanStow. [VanEaton?]
24 James Brown.
25 Samuel Littleton.
26 Jean Baptiste Laducier.
27 Joseph Thibeaut.
28 Lewis Blow.
29 Jean Baptist Secor. 1826
30 Mark Beaubien.
31 Peresh Laclerc.
32 Matthias Smith.
33 James Garow.
34 Alexander Robinson. 1825, 1826
35 Samuel Miller. [Landlord.]
36 Jonas Clybourne. 1825, 1826
37 John Joyal.
38 Peter Frique.
39 Jean Bapt. Tombien. [Toubien?]
40 John L. Davis.
41 Simon Debigie.
42 A. Foster.
43 George P. Wentworth.
44 Alex. McDowtard. [McDole?]
45 Jonathan A. Bailey.
46 David M’Kee. 1825, 1826
47 Joseph Pothier. 1826
48 Henry Kelly. 1826
49 Antoine Ouilmette. 1825, 1826
50 David Hunter. [General.]
51 James Engle.
52 John K. Clark. 1825, 1826
53 Russell E. Heacock.
54 Leon Bourassea.
55 Archibald Clybourne. 1826
56 Horatio G. Smith.

John S. C. Hogan, the successful candidate for Justice of the Peace, did not vote. Archibald Clybourne voted (for Justice) for Russell Rose, who was the candidate for Constable, voted for John S. C. Hogan, for the office of Constable.

But the two candidates for Constable came squarely up to the mark, and voted for each other.

Mr. Hogan was Postmaster in Chicago prior to the election of Martin VanBuren as President, who appointed Sidney Abell to succeed him. He built the first frame house on the South Side. It was near the north-west corner of Lake and Franklin streets.

The judges of this election were Alexander Wolcott, John B. Beaubien, and James Kinzie. The clerks were Medard B. Beaubien and Billy Caldwell, the Sauganash.

19 Williard Scott was a son of Stephen J. Scott; and now lives at Naperville, Ill.

42 There was a Lieut. —— Foster here about that time.

50 General Hunter, U. S. Army, married Maria H. Kinzie, born 1807, the only child of John Kinzie, now living.

51 There was a Lieut. Engle stationed here about that time.

SPECIAL ELECTION

For Justice of the Peace, at the house of James Kinzie, Chicago Precinct, Peoria County, State of Illinois, on Thursday, the 25th day of November, 1830.

1 Archibald Clybourne.
2 James Kinzie.
3 John Wellmaker.
4 John Mann.
5 Russell E. Heacock.
6 Peter Wycoff.
7 Billy Caldwell.
8 Jesse Walker.
9 Enoch Thompson.
10 Medard B. Beaubien.
11 David VanEaton.
12 John B. Beaubien.
13 Stephen J. Scott.
14 Matthias Smith.
15 David McKee.
16 William Jewett.
17 Horace Miner.
18 Samuel Miller.
19 Stephen Forbes.
20 William See.
21 Peter Muller.
22 Jonas Clybourne.
23 John B. Bradain.
24 John Shedaker.
25 Peter Frique.
26 John K. Clark.

Total, Stephen Forbes, 18. William See, 8.

Mr. Forbes was the first Sheriff of Cook Co., and married a sister to the wife of Barney H. Laughton. William See is mentioned in Mrs. Kinzie’s “Waubun,” and was a Methodist preacher. Mr. & Mrs. Forbes taught school here in 1831.

In this contest, each candidate voted for his opponent.

The judges at this election were James Kinzie, John B. Beaubien, and Archibald Clybourne. The clerks were Russell E. Heacock and Stephen J. Scott.

6 Peter Wycoff, was a discharged soldier, and worked for Archibald Clybourne.

9 There was a Lieut. Thompson stationed here about that time.

CHICAGO MARRIAGES, RECORDED IN PEORIA CO.

By John Kinzie. 24 April, 1826. Daniel Bourassea and Theotis Aruwaiskie.

By John Kinzie. 29 July, 1826. Samuel Miller and Elizabeth Kinzie. [Mr. Miller kept a hotel on the North Side, near the forks, and near where Kinzie street crosses the River. He moved to Michigan City, and died there. His wife was full sister to James Kinzie, and natural daughter of John Kinzie. Her mother was sister to Archibald Clybourne’s mother.]

By John Kinzie. 28 September, 1826. Alexander Robinson and Catherine Chevalier. [Che-che-pin-gua died on his reservation on the O’Plaine River, in this county, where his daughter now lives; his wife and sons being dead.]

By John B. Beaubien. 5 May, 1828. Joseph Bauskey and Widow Deborah (Scott) Watkins. [He died of cholera in 1832. His wife was daughter of Stephen J. Scott.]

By John B. Beaubien. 15 April, 1830. Samuel Watkins and Mary Ann Smith.

By John B. Beaubien. n May, 1830. Michael Welch and Elizabeth Ouilmette. [He was our first Irishman, and his wife was daughter of Antoine Ouilmette, of Ouilmette’s Reservation, in this Co.]

By John B. Beaubien. 18 May, 1830. Alvin Noyes Gardner and Julia Haley. [He moved to Blue Island.]

By Rev. William See. 3 August, 1830. John Mann and Arkash Sambli.

By Rev. William See. 1 November, 1830. Willis Scott and widow Lovisa B. Caldwell. [They have been heretofore alluded to.]

By Rev. William See. 7 November, 1830. B. H. Laughton and Sophia Bates. [They have been heretofore alluded to.]

GOV. FORD’S HOUSE.

Hon. Jas. V. Gale, an old settler of Oregon, Ogle Co., Ill., writes me: “that the house from which Thomas Ford was elected Governor, was one storied, 16 or 18 by 38, had a parlor, dining-room, and two bedrooms, with a small cooking room attached. It has been taken down some years. He settled here as early as 1836, and made a claim south of that of John Phelps. He sold it to John Fridley, who now owns it; and the same log cabin, which Judge Ford erected and occupied until he built his frame house, still stands. It is 18 feet square and 11 logs high. He was a man of small stature, careless in his dress, of good talents, put on no airs, popular with all, a good neighbor, able lawyer, congenial and sociable.”

[Page 57]

INDEX TO “EARLY CHICAGO :”—Second Lecture,
(No. 7 of Fergus’ Historical Series.)
BY HON. JOHN WENTWORTH, LL.D.,
Delivered Sunday, May 7, 1876.
[This Index was prepared by Mr. Wentworth, August, 1881.]

A.
Abel, Sidney, 53, 55.
Acay, Gabriel, 54.
Adams, John, 9.
Adams, John Quincy, 6, 7, 8, 17.
Ament, Edward, 16, 53.
Anderson, Joseph, 16, 53.
Aruwaiskie, Theotis, 56.
Aurora (schooner), 24.
Ayers, Thomas, 54.

B.
Bailey, Jonathan A., 16, 53, 54.
Banny, [Barry or Bannot;] Augustine, 16, 52, 54.
Bates, George C., 51.
Bates, Sophia, 56.
Bauskey, Joseph, 17, 54, 56.
Beaubien, John B., 15, 16, 18, 22, 24, 51, 52, 54, 55, 56.
Beaubien, Mark, 17, 24, 25, 54.
Beaubien, Medore B. [Medard B.], 16, 18, 22, 33, 35, 52, 54, 55.
Benedict, Sarah, 52.
Benton, Thomas H., 8.
Black Hawk (Indian chief), 4, 10, 44.
Blow, Lewis, 54.
Bogardus, John L., 15.
Bourassea, Daniel, 16, 56.
Bourassea, Leon, 16, 54.
Bradain [Beaubien], John B., 55.
Breese, Sidney, 12, 14.
Brown, James, 16, 54.
Brown, Jesse, 19.
Brown, Thomas C., 19.
Brown, William H., 11.
Buchanan, James, 8.
Buell, E., 24.
Burr, Aaron, 9.

C.
Caldwell, Archibald, 52, 53.
Caldwell, Billy, (Sauganash, Indian chief), 14, 16, 17, 18, 25, 33, 54, 55.
Calhoun, John, 3.
Calhoun, John C., 7, 17.
Caldwell, Lovisa B., 56.
Cass, Gen. Lewis, 8, 22.
Catie, Joseph, 16.
Chamblee (Shabonee, Indian chief), 33.
Charlevoix, Pierre Francois Xavir de, 10-13.
Chavellea, John Baptiste, 16.
Chavellie, Peter, 16.
Che-che-pin-qua (Alexander Robinson, Indian chief), 15, 16, 33, 54, 56.
Chevalier, Catherine, 56.
Chi-ka-gou (Indian chief), 12.
Clairmore [Clermont?], Jeremiah, 16.
Clark, John K., 15, 16, 17, 18, 52, 54, 55.
Clay, Henry, 7, 17.
Clermont [Clairmore?], Jeremiah, 15, 16, 52.
Clybourn, Archibald, 16, 17, 18, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56.
Clybourn, Henly, 52.
Clyboum, Jonas, 15, 16, 17, 51, 54, 55.
Cobb, Silas B., 44.
Conant, , 52.
Cook, Daniel P., 17, 25.
Coutra, Louis, 15.
Crafts, John, 15, 16, 51, 52.
Crittenden, John J., 8.

D.
Davis, Jefferson, 7, 26.
Davis, John L., 16, 53, 54.
Dearborn, Gen. Henry, 7.
Debigie, Simon, 54.
Displattes, Basile, 16.
Dodge, Gen. Henry, 8.
Dorr, Capt. of Schooner Tracy, 8.

E.
Eads, Abner, 15, 50.
Edwards, Gov. Ninian, 17, 25.
Engle, Lt. James, 54, 55.

F.
Fair Play (revenue cutter), 24.
Fergus, Robert, 26.
Ferrel, John, 51.
Field, Darby, 19.
Fillmore, Millard, 7, 8.
Forbes, Stephen, 53, 55.
Forbes, Mrs. Stephen, 55.
Ford, Gov. Thomas, 38, 39, 40, 56.
Foster, Lt. Amos, 54, 55.
Fridley, John, 56.
Frique, Peter, 16, 54, 55.
Fulton, Samuel, 50.

G.
Gage, Gen. Thomas, 11.
Gale, James V., 56.
Galloway, James, 54.
Galloway, Miss, married Archibald Clybourn, 52.
Ganday, Lewis, 17, 54.
Gardner, Alvin Noyes, 56.
Garie, ,12.
Garow, James, 54.
Garrett, Augustus, 33.
Griffin, Ann, 51.

H.
Hale, Artimas, 9.
Haley, Julia, 56.
Hall, Benjamin, 52.
Hallam, Rev. Isaac W., 33.
Hamilton, Mrs. Gen. Alexander, 9.
Hamilton, William S., 51.
Hamlin, John, 50, 51.
Harrison, Gen. William H., 8.
Heacock, Russell E., 16, 18, 53, 54, 55.
Heartless (schooner), 24.
Henry Clay (steamboat), 5.
Hinton, Rev. Isaac T., 42, 43, 45.
Hogan, John S. C, 16, 53, 54, 55.
Holcomb, John, 51.
Hoyne, Thomas, 43.
Hubbard, Gurdon S., 12.
Hull, Gen. William, 25.
Hunter, Gen. David, 54, 55.

J.
Jackson, Gen. Andrew, 8, 17, 28, 32, 44.
Jamboe, Paul, 16.
Jefferson, Thomas, 9, 12.
Jewett, William P., 54.
Jewett, William, 55.
Johnston, Samuel, 16.
Jowett [or Jewett], Charles, 51.
Joyal, John, 54.
Junio, Peter, 16.

K.
Kearney, Gen. Stephen W., 19.
Keating, William H., 22.
Kelley, Henry, 16, 52, 54.
Kennison, David, 9.
Kerchival, Benjamin B., 22.
Kimball, Walter, 3.
Kingsbury, Julius J. B., 42.
Kinzie, Elizabeth, 53, 56.
Kinzie, Ellen M., 51.
Kinzie, James, 16, 18, 26, 53, 54, 55, 56.
Kinzie, John, 15, 16, 17, 18, 23, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56.
Kinzie, Mrs. Juliette A., 52, 55.
Kinzie, Maria H., 55.

L.
Laducier, Francis, 16, 17, 53.
Laducier, John Baptiste, 54.
Lafortune, John Baptiste, 16.
Lafromboise, Claude, 15, 16, 52.
Lafromboise, Francis, sr., 16.
Lafromboise, Francis, jr., 16.
Lafromboise, Joseph, 15, 16, 17, 33, 51, 52, 54.
Larant, Alexander, 16.
Laughton, Barney H., 16, 53, 55, 56.
LeClerc, Peresh (LeClair, Peter), 17, 54.
Lincoln, Abraham, 8.
Littleton, Samuel, 54.
Long, Stephen H., 22.

M.
Mack, Major, 53.
Mack, Stephen, 16, 53, 54.
Madison, James, 8, 9.
Madison, Mrs. James, 8, 9.
Malast, John Baptiste, 16.
Mann, John, 16, 54, 55, 56.
Martin, Laurant, 17.
Marquette, Rev. James, 13.
Maximillian, Emperor, 20.
McDole, Alexander, 16, 54.
McKee, David, 15, 16, 22, 23, 24, 53, 54, 55.
McNeil, John, 24.
Miller, Samuel, 53, 54, 55, 56.
Mills, Benjamin, 26.
Miner, Horace, 55.
Miranda, Victoria, 53.
Monroe, James, 8.
Muller, Peter, 55.
Murphy, John, 25, 44.

O.
Orleans, Duchess of, 13.
Ouilmette (Willmette), Antoine, 15, 16, 52, 54, 56.
Ouilmette, Elizabeth, 52, 56.
Owen, Thomas J. V., 51.

P.
Papan, Joseph, 54.
Pepot, Joseph, 16.
Perrot, Nicholas, 13.
Phelps, John, 56.
Piche, Peter, 15, 52.
Pierce, Franklin, 8.
Polk, James EL, 7, 8, 20.
Pothier, Joseph, 16, 23, 33, 53, 54.

R.
Ransom, Capt., 50.
Rausom, Amherst C., 15, 50.
Reynolds, Gov. John, 17.
Robinson, Alexander, (Che-che-pin-qua, Indian chief), 15, 16, 33, 54, 56.
Rose, Russell, 54, 55.
Roussain, Eustache, 50.
Rousser (Rausam), Amherst C, 15, 50.
Russell, Benjamin, 16.

S.
Sambli, Arkash, 56.
Sauganash (Billy Caldwell, Indian chief), 14, 16, 17, 18, 25, 33, 54, 55.
Scott, Deborah, 56.
Scott, Permelia, 52.
Scott, Stephen J., 16, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56.
Scott, Wealthy, 53.
Scott, Willard, 53, 54, 55.
Scott, Willis, 52, 53, 56.
Schuyler, Gen. Philip, 9.
Secor, Jolin Baptist, 16, 17, 54.
See, Rev. William, 16, 53, 55, 56.
Shabonee (Chamblee, Indian chief), 33.
Shedaker, John, 55.
Sheldon Thompson (steamboat), 5.
Smith, Horatio G., 54.
Smith, Joseph, 41.
Smith, Mary Ann, 56.
Smith, Matthias, 54, 55.
St. Clair, Gen. Arthur, 11.
Strode, James M., 26.
Sullivan, Jeremiah, 20.
Sullivan, Lt. , 20, 21.
Superior (steamboat), 5.
Swing, Rev. David, 37.

T.
Tappan, Benjamin, 6.
Taylor, Augustine D., 3.
Taylor, Zachary, 8.
Tecumseh (Indian chief), 13, 14, 17.
Thibeaut, Joseph, 16, 54.
Thompson, Lt. J. L., 55.
Thompson, Enoch, 55.
Thompson, Samuel, 11, 17.
Titus, Capt.—–, 24.
Todd, John, 11.
Tombien (or Toubien), Jean Baptiste, 54.
Tracy (schooner), 8.
Tyler, John, 8.

V.
VanBuren, Martin, 8, 55.
VanEaton, David, 16, 54, 55.
VanHorn, John, 16, 54.
VanOsdell, John M., 43.
VanSicle, Martin, 16, 53.
Van Side, Almira, 53.
VanStow, David, 54.
Vivier, Rev. Louis, 12.

W.
Wales, Prince of, 22.
Walker, Capt. A., 5.
Walker, Rev. Jesse, 16, 18, 53, 55.
Washington, Gen. George, 6, 9.
Watkins, Deborah (Scott), 56.
Watkins, Samuel, 56.
Wayne, Gen. Anthony, 8, 12, 22.
Webster, Daniel, 8.
Weeks, Cole, 16, 52.
Welch, Michael, 17, 19, 52, 54, 56.
Wellmaker, John, 54, 55.
Wentworth, Elijah, sr., 26, 51.
Wentworth, Elijah, jr., 26, 51.
Wentworth, George P., 54.
Wentworth, Hiram, 51.
Wentworth, John, 50.
Whistler, John, 7, 8, 10.
Whistler, William, 8.
Wilkins, William, 8.
William Penn (steamboat), 5.
Wilmette [Ouilmette], Antoine, 15, 16, 52, 54, 56.
Wilmette [Ouilmette], Elizabeth, 56.
Winthrop, Gov. John, 19.
Wolcott, Alexander, 15, 18, 23, 50, 51, 54, 55.
Woodbridge, William, 8.
Woodbury, Levi, 8.
Woodville, N. D., 51.
Wright, Silas, 47.
Wycoff, Peter, 54, 55.

Y.
Young Tiger (schooner), 24.

Contributed 25 Jan 2013 by Deb Haines